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Farmers slowed down by hunter-gatherers: Our ancestors' fight for space

Date:
December 3, 2010
Source:
Plataforma SINC
Summary:
Farmers from the Near East spread throughout Europe around 7,000 years ago, but the hunter-gatherers of the north slowed their advance for around 15 centuries. Now, researchers have developed a physical model to explain how this kind of competition developed throughout what is now Europe area during the Neolithic era.

Chronology of the Neolithic wave of advance in Europe. The arrow corresponds to the y-direction in the model.
Credit: J. Fort y N. Isern

Farmers from the Near East spread throughout Europe around 7,000 years ago, but the hunter-gatherers of the north slowed their advance for around 15 centuries. Now, researchers from the University of Girona have developed a physical model to explain how this kind of competition developed throughout what is now Europe area during the Neolithic era.

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One of the most significant socioeconomic changes in the history of humanity took place around 10,000 years ago, when the Near East went from an economy based on hunting and gathering (Mesolithic) to another kind on agriculture (Neolithic). Farmers rapidly entered the Balkan Peninsula and then advanced gradually throughout the rest of Europe.

Various theories have been proposed over recent years to explain this process, and now physicists from the University of Girona (UdG) have for the first time presented a new model to explain how the Neolithic front slowed down as it moved towards the north of the continent. The study has been published in the New Journal of Physics.

"The model shows that the farmers' dispersal and reproduction was limited by the high density of hunter-gatherers in northern Europe," Neus Isern, a physicist at the UdG and lead author of the study, said.

By between 8,000 and 9,000 years ago, the first farmers from Asia were already cultivating land in what is now Greece, but in the areas today occupied by the United Kingdom, Denmark and Northern Germany this did not happen until around 3,000 years later. This can be seen from archaeological remains.

Reaction-diffusion model

The "reaction-diffusion" model explains the archaeological data and the decline in the speed of progress of the Neolithic front. This is based on two mathematical effects relating to the availability of space for the incomers (dispersal of farmers dependent on spatial variation in the population density of hunter-gatherers, and a modified population growth equation).

"The density of hunter-gatherers was higher in northern latitudes, which enables the model to explain the deceleration in the Neolithic transition in Europe," explains Joaquim Fort, the other author of the study, who is also a physicist at the UdG.

The authors also stress that the same model "could be applied to many other examples of invasion fronts, in which indigenous populations and invaders compete for a space within a unique biological niche, both in terms of natural habitats and microbiological assays."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Plataforma SINC. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. neus Isern, Joaquim Fort. Anisotropic dispersion, space competition and the slowdown of the Neolithic transition. New Journal of Physics, 2010; DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/12/12/123002

Cite This Page:

Plataforma SINC. "Farmers slowed down by hunter-gatherers: Our ancestors' fight for space." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 December 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101203081642.htm>.
Plataforma SINC. (2010, December 3). Farmers slowed down by hunter-gatherers: Our ancestors' fight for space. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 31, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101203081642.htm
Plataforma SINC. "Farmers slowed down by hunter-gatherers: Our ancestors' fight for space." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/12/101203081642.htm (accessed January 31, 2015).

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