Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Chaperone enzyme provides new target for cancer treatments

Date:
January 20, 2011
Source:
University of North Carolina School of Medicine
Summary:
Scientists who study how cells repair damage from environmental factors like sunlight and cigarette smoke have discovered how a "chaperone" enzyme plays a key role in cells' ability to tolerate the DNA damage that leads to cancer and other diseases.

UNC scientists who study how cells repair damage from environmental factors like sunlight and cigarette smoke have discovered how a "chaperone" enzyme plays a key role in cells' ability to tolerate the DNA damage that leads to cancer and other diseases.

Related Articles


The enzyme, known as Rad18, detects a protein called DNA polymerase eta (Pol eta) and accompanies it to the sites of sunlight-induced DNA damage, enabling accurate repair. When Pol eta is not present, alternative error-prone polymerases take its place -- a process that leads to DNA mutations often found in cancer cells.

In one known example, faulty DNA repair due to Pol eta- deficiency is responsible for the genetic disease xeroderma pigmentosum-variant, which makes patients extremely susceptible to skin cancers caused by exposure to sunlight. However, scientists did not know how the cells selected the correct DNA Polymerase for error-free repair of each type of DNA damage.

"We found that the mechanism that promotes the 'chaperone' enzyme to recruit Pol eta to sites of DNA damage is managed by another signaling protein termed 'Cdc7' which we know is essential to normal regulation of the cellular lifecycle," said lead author Cyrus Vaziri, PhD, who is an associate professor of pathology and laboratory medicine and member of UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center. Thus cells employ Cdc7 to ensure accurate DNA repair during the stage of their lifecycle that is most vulnerable to cancer-causing mutations.

The study was published in November in the Journal of Cell Biology.

According to Vaziri, the dual role that Cdc7 plays in the cell lifecycle and DNA repair offers a promising target for potential cancer therapies.

"We know that cancer cells have high levels of Cdc7 activity and can evade some DNA-damaging therapies such as cis-Platinum through Rad18 and Pol eta activity. We may be able to target this pathway in platinum-resistant tumors to prevent DNA repair and enhance cancer cell killing by platinating agents," he said.

Other members of the research team include Komaraiah Palle, PhD from UNC's Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Tovah Day, PhD, Laura Barkley, PhD, and Ying Zou, PhD, from Boston University, Naoko Kakusho, PhD, and Hisao Masai, PhD, from the Genome Dynamics Project at the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Satoshi Tateishi, PhD, from Kumamoto University, Japan, and Alain Verreault, PhD, from the Universite de Montreal, Canada.

The research was funded by grants from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, part of the National Institutes of Health.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of North Carolina School of Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. T. A. Day, K. Palle, L. R. Barkley, N. Kakusho, Y. Zou, S. Tateishi, A. Verreault, H. Masai, C. Vaziri. Phosphorylated Rad18 directs DNA Polymerase η to sites of stalled replication. The Journal of Cell Biology, 2010; 191 (5): 953 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201006043

Cite This Page:

University of North Carolina School of Medicine. "Chaperone enzyme provides new target for cancer treatments." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 January 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110118143220.htm>.
University of North Carolina School of Medicine. (2011, January 20). Chaperone enzyme provides new target for cancer treatments. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 30, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110118143220.htm
University of North Carolina School of Medicine. "Chaperone enzyme provides new target for cancer treatments." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110118143220.htm (accessed March 30, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, March 30, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

S. Leone in New Anti-Ebola Lockdown

S. Leone in New Anti-Ebola Lockdown

AFP (Mar. 28, 2015) Sierra Leone imposed a three-day nationwide lockdown Friday for the second time in six months in a bid to prevent a resurgence of the deadly Ebola virus. Duration: 01:17 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
These Popular Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Nerve Damage

These Popular Antibiotics Can Cause Permanent Nerve Damage

Newsy (Mar. 27, 2015) A popular class of antibiotic can leave patients in severe pain and even result in permanent nerve damage. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
WH Plan to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Germs

WH Plan to Fight Antibiotic-Resistant Germs

AP (Mar. 27, 2015) The White House on Friday announced a five-year plan to fight the threat posed by antibiotic-resistant bacteria amid fears that once-treatable germs could become deadly. (March 27) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
House Ready to Pass Medicare Doc Bill

House Ready to Pass Medicare Doc Bill

AP (Mar. 26, 2015) In rare bipartisan harmony, congressional leaders pushed a $214 billion bill permanently blocking physician Medicare cuts toward House passage Thursday, moving lawmakers closer to resolving a problem that has plagued them for years. (March 26) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins