Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cigarette smoking associated with increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Date:
March 21, 2011
Source:
JAMA and Archives Journals
Summary:
Cigarette smoking may be associated with an increased risk of developing the muscle-wasting disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, according to a new article.

Cigarette smoking may be associated with an increased risk of developing the muscle-wasting disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), according to a report in the February issue of Archives of Neurology.

"Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder of motor neurons affecting more than 5,500 newly diagnosed patients every year in the United States," according to background information in the article. "There is no cure for ALS, and the few available treatments have limited efficacy. About 90 percent of ALS cases are sporadic and of unknown, possibly environmental, origin."

To examine the association between cigarette smoking and ALS, Hao Wang, M.D., Ph.D., of the Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, and colleagues analyzed data from five different long-term studies involving a total of more than 1.1 million participants, of whom 832 had ALS. Follow-up ranged from seven to 28 years.

The rates of ALS in the five studies combined increased with age, and were higher in men than women for all age groups. Those who had ever smoked cigarettes at the beginning of the study had an increased risk of ALS compared with those who had never smoked. Current smokers had a 42 percent increased risk of developing the disease and former smokers had a 44 percent increased risk.

The risk of developing ALS also increased as the number of pack-years smoked (product of the number of packs per day and the number of years that quantity was smoked). Additionally, the average number of cigarettes smoked per day and the duration of smoking were positively associated with ALS when examined independently and not combined into pack-years. The risk of developing ALS increased by 10 percent for each increment of ten cigarettes smoked per day and by 9 percent for each 10 years of smoking; however, these associations did not persist when never-smokers were excluded. Among those who smoked, the risk of ALS increased as the age they started smoking decreased.

"Several possible mechanisms by which cigarette smoking might influence the risk of ALS have been suggested, including direct neuronal damage from nitric oxide or other components of cigarette smoke (such as residues of pesticides used in tobacco cultivation) or from oxidative stress," the authors write. "Chemicals that are present in cigarette smoke generate free radicals and products of lipid peroxydation, and smokers have a higher turnover of the major antioxidant vitamin C. Exposure to formaldehyde, a by-product of the combustion product of tobacco smoking, was reported in 2008 to be associated with an increased risk of ALS."

"Better understanding of the relation between smoking and ALS may further the discovery of other risk factors and help elucidate the nature of the disease," they conclude.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by JAMA and Archives Journals. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. H. Wang, E. J. O'Reilly, M. G. Weisskopf, G. Logroscino, M. L. McCullough, M. J. Thun, A. Schatzkin, L. N. Kolonel, A. Ascherio. Smoking and Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Pooled Analysis of 5 Prospective Cohorts. Archives of Neurology, 2011; 68 (2): 207 DOI: 10.1001/archneurol.2010.367

Cite This Page:

JAMA and Archives Journals. "Cigarette smoking associated with increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 March 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110214162935.htm>.
JAMA and Archives Journals. (2011, March 21). Cigarette smoking associated with increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110214162935.htm
JAMA and Archives Journals. "Cigarette smoking associated with increased risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110214162935.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, October 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

How Nigeria Beat Its Ebola Outbreak

How Nigeria Beat Its Ebola Outbreak

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) The World Health Organization has declared Nigeria free of Ebola. Health experts credit a bit of luck and the government's initial response. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Another Study Suggests Viagra Is Good For The Heart

Another Study Suggests Viagra Is Good For The Heart

Newsy (Oct. 20, 2014) An ingredient in erectile-dysfunction medications such as Viagra could improve heart function. Perhaps not surprising, given Viagra's history. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Worries End for Dozens on U.S. Watch Lists

Ebola Worries End for Dozens on U.S. Watch Lists

Reuters - US Online Video (Oct. 20, 2014) Forty-three people who had contact with Thomas Eric Duncan, the first person diagnosed with Ebola in the U.S., were cleared overnight of twice-daily monitoring after 21 days of showing no symptoms. Rough Cut (no reporter narration). Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
CDC Calls for New Ebola Safety Guidelines

CDC Calls for New Ebola Safety Guidelines

AP (Oct. 20, 2014) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Director Dr. Tom Frieden laid out new guidelines for health care workers when dealing with the deadly Ebola virus including new precautions when taking off personal protective equipment. (Oct. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins