Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

RNA spurs melanoma development; Potential new diagnostic marker for skin cancer

Date:
May 10, 2011
Source:
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
Summary:
Researchers have discovered that long, non-coding RNA (lncRNA) levels are altered in human melanoma. Their study shows that one lncRNA called SPRY4-IT1 is elevated in melanoma cells, where it promotes cellular survival and invasion.

Traditionally, RNA was mostly known as the messenger molecule that carries protein-making instructions from a cell's nucleus to the cytoplasm. But scientists now estimate that approximately 97 percent of human RNA doesn't actually code for proteins at all.

A flurry of research in the past decade has revealed that some types of non-coding RNAs switch genes on and off and influence protein function. The best studied non-coding RNAs are the microRNAs.

Now, researchers led by Dr. Ranjan Perera at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) in Lake Nona and collaborators at the University of Queensland in Australia, have discovered that levels of a relatively understudied group of RNAs -- long, non-coding RNA (lncRNA) -- are altered in human melanoma. Their study, published online May 10 by the journal Cancer Research, shows that one lncRNA called SPRY4-IT1 is elevated in melanoma cells, where it promotes cellular survival and invasion.

"Non-coding RNA used to be considered cellular junk. But we and others have been asking the question -- if it doesn't code for proteins, then what does it do in the cell?" said Dr. Perera, associate professor at Sanford-Burnham. "We're especially interested in determining what roles microRNAs and lncRNAs play in the genesis and development of human melanomas."

Melanoma is one of the rarest forms of skin cancer, but it is also the most deadly. Dr. Perera and his team compared lncRNAs in several laboratory cell-lines of melanoma and normal skin cells, as well as in 30 different human patient samples. They found that levels of one lncRNA, SPRY4-IT1, were particularly high in melanoma cells, but not in normal skin cells. To further probe the function of this lncRNA, they looked at what happens in a melanoma cell-line where SPRY4-IT1 levels are significantly reduced. Cellular growth was impaired and cell death was increased in these SPRY4-IT1-deficient melanoma cells, as compared to melanoma cells with fully functioning lncRNAs. What's more, the ability of melanoma cells to invade the extracellular matrix (an early step in cancer cell metastasis) was reduced in cells lacking SPRY4-IT1.

"The elevated expression of SPRY4-IT1 in melanoma cells, its accumulation in the cell cytoplasm and effects on cell dynamics all suggest that increased SPRY4-IT1 may play an important role in the molecular underpinnings of human melanoma," said Dr. Perera. "Based on this information, we believe SPRY4-IT1 could be an early biomarker for the detection of melanoma."

In a separate study recently published in the journal PLoS ONE, Dr. Perera's group also reported that melanoma cells have lower levels of a different non-coding RNA, called miR-211. Together, these two studies give researchers a better understanding of melanoma development, which in turn could help them design new diagnostics and therapeutics for this often fatal disease.

Other authors of this study included Divya Khaitan and Joseph Mazar at Sanford-Burnham and Marcel E. Dinger, Joanna Crawford, Martin A. Smith and John S. Mattick at the University of Queensland in Australia.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. Divya Khaitan, Marcel E. Dinger, Joseph Mazar, Joanna Crawford, Martin A. Smith, John S. Mattick, Ranjan J. Perera. The Melanoma‐Upregulated Long Noncoding RNA SPRY4-IT1 Modulates Apoptosis and Invasion. Cancer Research, 2011; DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-4460
  2. Joseph Mazar, Katherine DeYoung, Divya Khaitan, Edward Meister, Alvin Almodovar, James Goydos, Animesh Ray, Ranjan J. Perera. The Regulation of miRNA-211 Expression and Its Role in Melanoma Cell Invasiveness. PLoS ONE, 2010; 5 (11): e13779 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013779

Cite This Page:

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. "RNA spurs melanoma development; Potential new diagnostic marker for skin cancer." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 May 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110510134059.htm>.
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. (2011, May 10). RNA spurs melanoma development; Potential new diagnostic marker for skin cancer. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110510134059.htm
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute. "RNA spurs melanoma development; Potential new diagnostic marker for skin cancer." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/05/110510134059.htm (accessed September 16, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

AFP (Sep. 15, 2014) The European Commission met on Monday to coordinate aid that the EU can offer to African countries affected by the Ebola outbreak. Duration: 00:58 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Newsy (Sep. 15, 2014) A new study finds children are prescribed antibiotics twice as often as is necessary. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

AP (Sep. 15, 2014) The FDA is considering whether to ban devices used by the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Canton, Massachusetts, the only place in the country known to use electrical skin shocks as aversive conditioning for aggressive patients. (Sept. 15) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Respiratory Virus Spreads To Northeast, Now In 21 States

Respiratory Virus Spreads To Northeast, Now In 21 States

Newsy (Sep. 14, 2014) The respiratory virus Enterovirus D68, which targets children, has spread from the Midwest to 21 states. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins