Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Undernourishment in pregnant, lactating females found key to next generation's disease

Date:
June 14, 2011
Source:
American Physiological Society
Summary:
A study in primates establishes the critical role that undernourishment in mothers-to-be and lactating females has in creating Type 2 diabetes in offspring.

A new study published by the American Physiological Society offers the strongest evidence yet that vulnerability to type 2 diabetes can begin in the womb, giving new insight into the mechanisms that underlie a potentially devastating disease at the center of a worldwide epidemic. The study, conducted in baboon primates, finds that when mothers are even moderately undernourished while pregnant and breastfeeding, their offspring are consistently found to be prediabetic before adolescence. It is the first time that diabetes has been shown to have prenatal origins in a primate model.

Related Articles


According to Peter W. Nathanielsz, senior author of the study, "We pass more biological milestones before we are born and in the early weeks of life than at any other time." Poor maternal nutrition, which translates to less sustenance for growing fetuses, is a stubborn problem in parts of the U.S. and the developing world, Nathanielsz said. Thus, "Poor nutrition at critical periods of development can hinder growth of essential organs such as the pancreas, which sees a significantly decrease in its ability to secrete insulin. Our study is the first to show in a primate that poor nutrition during fetal and early life can damage the pancreas and predispose one to type 2 diabetes."

The study, "Emergence of insulin resistance in juvenile baboon offspring of mothers exposed to moderate maternal nutrient reduction" was conducted by Nathanielsz and colleagues Jaehyek Choi, Cun Li, and Thomas J. McDonald of the School of Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and Anthony Comuzzie and Vicki Mattern of the Texas Biomedical Research Institute in San Antonio. The study was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. It is published in the online edition of the American Journal of Physiology -- Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Background

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body develops resistance to insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar. Although the body may initially compensate by secreting more insulin, eventually the pancreas cannot produce enough of the hormone to keep blood sugar from rising. In poorly controlled diabetes, elevated blood sugar severely damages the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves. The consequences can be fatal and include heart disease, stroke, amputations, blindness and kidney failure.

Worldwide, diabetes is an escalating public health crisis. According to estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), 366 million people will be diabetic by the 2030, up from 171 million in 2000. This is a 114 percent projected increase.

Formerly called "adult-onset diabetes," type 2 diabetes is seen increasingly in children at earlier and earlier ages. Excess body weight and physical inactivity are known causes, but Nathanielsz and his collaborators have long been interested in whether some individuals might be predisposed to diabetes from birth, or even earlier. Nathanielsz conducts research on this and similar topics through the Center for Pregnancy and Newborn Research in the UT Health Science Center's Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

The Study

For this study, to avoid the complication of influences from genes, researchers selected 18 female baboons similar in age and other observable characteristics and housed them with a fertile male baboon. All females became pregnant. From 30 days of gestation, 12 females were randomly assigned to be fed an appropriate diet for their weight. The other six received 70 percent of the chow given to control females on a weight-adjusted basis. The female baboons continued on their respective diets through delivery and the weaning of their offspring. Once the young baboons were weaned, they were fed normal diets.

Just before they reached puberty, the six young baboons from nutritionally restricted mothers showed increases in fasting glucose, fasting insulin and other hallmarks of prediabetes. The 12 young baboons whose mothers received adequate nutrition displayed none of these traits.

The central importance of this observation is that the mothers' food intake was only moderately restricted -- similar to the decrease faced in the United State by many people living with food insecurity. There are 925 million undernourished people worldwide, including 19 million in developed countries, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

The researchers conclude that even moderate nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy result in offspring predisposed to type 2 diabetes, particularly if they are exposed to other risk factors in later life, such as a Western diet and physical inactivity leading to obesity. A fetus may also receive fewer nutrients due to teenage pregnancy, where the growing mother competes with her offspring for resources; in pregnancies complicated by maternal vascular disease, which may occur in women who become pregnant later in their reproductive life; and when placental problems exist. The decrease in fetal growth observed in the newborn baboons was only about 10 percent, very similar to many human babies born growth restricted.

Next Steps

According to Dr. Nathanielsz, the next step is separating the effect of nutrient deficiencies experienced during pregnancy from those that occur during breastfeeding.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Physiological Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Jaehyek Choi, Cun Li, Thomas J Mcdonald, Anthony G Comuzzie, Vicki Mattern, and Peter W Nathanielsz. Emergence of insulin resistance in juvenile baboon offspring of mothers exposed to moderate maternal nutrient reduction. American Journal of Physiology—Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 2011 DOI: 10.%u200B1152/%u200Bajpregu.%u200B00051.%u200B2011

Cite This Page:

American Physiological Society. "Undernourishment in pregnant, lactating females found key to next generation's disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 June 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110613142212.htm>.
American Physiological Society. (2011, June 14). Undernourishment in pregnant, lactating females found key to next generation's disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110613142212.htm
American Physiological Society. "Undernourishment in pregnant, lactating females found key to next generation's disease." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110613142212.htm (accessed October 26, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Sunday, October 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Texas Nurse Nina Pham Cured of Ebola

Texas Nurse Nina Pham Cured of Ebola

AFP (Oct. 25, 2014) — An American nurse who contracted Ebola while caring for a Liberian patient in Texas has been declared free of the virus and will leave the hospital. Duration: 01:01 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Toxin-Packed Stem Cells Used To Kill Cancer

Toxin-Packed Stem Cells Used To Kill Cancer

Newsy (Oct. 25, 2014) — A Harvard University Research Team created genetically engineered stem cells that are able to kill cancer cells, while leaving other cells unharmed. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

Buzz60 (Oct. 24, 2014) — IKEA is out with a new convertible desk that can convert from a sitting desk to a standing one with just the push of a button. Jen Markham explains. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

AFP (Oct. 24, 2014) — A factory in China is busy making Ebola protective suits for healthcare workers and others fighting the spread of the virus. Duration: 00:38 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins