Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Newly identified antibodies may improve pneumonia vaccine design

Date:
September 22, 2011
Source:
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Summary:
Researchers have discovered how a novel type of antibody works against pneumococcal bacteria.

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have discovered how a novel type of antibody works against pneumococcal bacteria. The findings, which could improve vaccines against pneumonia, appear in the September/October issue of mBio, the online journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

Until recently, scientists thought that antibodies work against pneumococcal bacteria by killing them with the help of immune cells. However, several years ago, Einstein researchers discovered antibodies that were very effective against experimental pneumococcal disease in mice even though they were not able to induce bacterial killing by immune cells. In the current study, the researchers examined how these antibodies interact with pneumococcal bacteria and found that they cause the bacteria to clump together, enhancing a phenomenon called quorum sensing.

"Quorum sensing is a way that bacteria communicate with one another," explained senior author Liise-anne Pirofski, M.D., professor of medicine and of microbiology & immunology, chief of infectious diseases at Einstein and Montefiore Medical Center, the University Hospital for Einstein, and the Selma and Dr. Jacques Mitrani Professor in Biomedical Research at Einstein. "Here, the ability of antibodies to enhance quorum sensing causes the bacteria to express genes that could kill some of their siblings, something called fratricide, and weaken the defense mechanisms that enable bacteria to survive and grow in a hostile environment."

The National Foundation for Infectious Diseases estimates that 175,000 people are hospitalized with pneumococcal pneumonia in the United States each year. In addition, pneumococcal bacteria cause 34,500 bloodstream infections and 2,200 cases of meningitis annually.

There are two pneumococcal vaccines: one for adults and one for infants and children. The pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has dramatically reduced the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children and adults by protecting vaccinated children and by reducing person-to-person transmission of the bacterium, (a phenomenon known as herd protection). However, the vaccine doesn't cover all strains of disease-causing pneumococcus, and the vaccine currently used for adults does not prevent pneumonia. Fortifying current pneumococcal vaccines to stimulate antibodies that make pneumococcal bacteria less able to protect themselves -- or kill them directly -- could enhance their effectiveness.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Masahide Yano, Shruti Gohil, J. Robert Coleman, Catherine Manix, Andliise-Anne Pirofski. Antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide Enhance Pneumococcal Quorum Sensing. mBio, 13 September 2011, vol. 2 DOI: 10.1128/%u200BmBio.00176-11

Cite This Page:

Albert Einstein College of Medicine. "Newly identified antibodies may improve pneumonia vaccine design." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 September 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110922121410.htm>.
Albert Einstein College of Medicine. (2011, September 22). Newly identified antibodies may improve pneumonia vaccine design. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110922121410.htm
Albert Einstein College of Medicine. "Newly identified antibodies may improve pneumonia vaccine design." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110922121410.htm (accessed April 24, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, April 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Big Pharma Braces for M&A Wave

Big Pharma Braces for M&A Wave

Reuters - Business Video Online (Apr. 22, 2014) Big pharma on the move as Novartis boss, Joe Jimenez, tells Reuters about plans to transform his company via an asset exchange with GSK, and Astra Zeneca shares surge on speculation that Pfizer is looking for a takeover. Joanna Partridge reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Study Says Most Crime Not Linked To Mental Illness

Study Says Most Crime Not Linked To Mental Illness

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) A new study finds most crimes committed by people with mental illness are not caused by symptoms of their illness or disorder. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Hagel Gets Preview of New High-Tech Projects

Hagel Gets Preview of New High-Tech Projects

AP (Apr. 22, 2014) Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel is given hands-on demonstrations Tuesday of some of the newest research from DARPA _ the military's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency program. (April 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Smaller Plates And Cutlery Could Make You Feel Fuller

How Smaller Plates And Cutlery Could Make You Feel Fuller

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) NBC's "Today" conducted an experiment to see if changing the size of plates and utensils affects the amount individuals eat. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins