Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Biologists slow the aging process in fruit flies: Study has implications for humans

Date:
November 11, 2011
Source:
University of California - Los Angeles
Summary:
Biologists have identified a gene that slows the aging process. The biologists, working with fruit flies, activated a gene called PGC-1, which increases the activity of mitochondria, the tiny power generators in cells that control cell growth and tell cells when to live and die.

Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster).
Credit: © Studiotouch / Fotolia

UCLA life scientists have identified a gene that slows the aging process. The biologists, working with fruit flies, activated a gene called PGC-1, which increases the activity of mitochondria, the tiny power generators in cells that control cell growth and tell cells when to live and die.

"We took this gene and boosted its activity in different cells and tissues of the fly and asked whether this impacts the aging process," said David Walker, an assistant professor of integrative biology and physiology at UCLA and a senior author of the study. "We discovered that when we boost PGC-1 within the fly's digestive tract, the fly lives significantly longer. We also studied neurons, muscle and other tissue types and did not find life extension; this is telling us there is something important about the digestive tract."

The research appears in the current online edition of Cell Metabolism, the leading journal in its field, and will be published in an upcoming print edition. Co-authors are from Walker's laboratory, the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, Calif., and the department of biology at UC San Diego.

"By activating this one gene in this one tissue -- the intestine -- the fly lives longer; we slow aging of the intestine, and that has a positive effect on the whole animal," said Walker, a member of UCLA's Molecular Biology Institute. "Our study shows that increasing PGC-1 gene activity in the intestine can slow aging, both at the cellular level and at the level of the whole animal."

The biologists delayed the aging of the flies' intestines and extended their lives by as much as 50 percent.

Fruit flies, or Drosophila melanogaster, have a life span of about two months. They start showing signs of aging after about one month, and they slow down, become less active and die, Walker said. They are a great model for studying aging, he said, because scientists know every one of their genes and can switch individual genes on and off.

What are the study's implications for human aging?

"We all think about protecting the brain and the heart, but the intestine is a vital tissue type for healthy aging," Walker said. "If anything goes wrong with the mitochondria in cells, the consequences could be devastating, and if anything goes wrong with our intestines, that may have devastating consequences for other tissue types and organs. Not only is the intestine essential for the uptake of nutrients that are a vital source of energy, but it is also an important barrier that protects us from toxins and pathogens in the environment. The intestine has to be well-maintained.

"No one yet knows what causes aging at the cellular or tissue level," Walker said. "As we age, our mitochondria become less efficient and less active. That has far-reaching consequences, because if the mitochondria decline, then all of our cellular functions may be compromised. However, it's a dangerous road to travel to say, 'This is the cause of aging.'"

The PGC-1 gene activates the cells' mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial activity in mammals and flies. The gene is a potential target for pharmaceuticals to combat age-related diseases, Walker said.

The study raises the question of whether increasing mitochondrial activity is an effective strategy to delay aging. If so, increasing the PGC-1 gene may prove key, Walker said.

The first question Walker and his colleagues asked was whether the fruit fly version of PGC-1 has the same function as the mammalian version. They found it does.

The biologist increased levels of expression of the fly version of the PGC-1 gene and found that this made mitochondria more active. They then tested whether boosting PGC-1 activity would slow aging and, again, they found that it did, when they focused on the fly's digestive tract.

The fly's intestine is maintained by adult stem cells, previous research has shown. The biologists also asked what would happen if they used genetic and molecular tools to boost PGC-1 gene expression within only the stem cells and their immediate "daughter" cells.

"Collaborating with a stem cell group at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, we boosted the gene expression within just the stem- and the immediate daughter-cell types and found that was sufficient to extend the life span of the flies," said Walker, who studies the basic underlying mechanisms of the aging process.

In addition, increasing the fruit fly's version of PGC-1 delays the onset of cellular changes within the intestine, thereby establishing a link between mitochondria, tissue stem cells and aging, the new study shows.

"Many scientists study the diseases of aging, and they tend to do so individually," Walker said. "One group will study Alzheimer's disease, another group will study cardiovascular disease, another will study cancer. We take a different approach. We don't single out any of these specific diseases of old age. We study the aging process itself. Aging is the No. 1 risk factor for most cancers, heart disease, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and many others."

Co-authors on the study included Michael Rera, a UCLA postdoctoral scholar in Walker's laboratory; Sepehr Bahadorani, a former postdoctoral scholar in Walker's laboratory; and Jaehyoung Cho, a former postdoctoral scholar in Walker's laboratory.

Walker's research was funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Ellison Medical Foundation. Walker is an Ellison Medical Foundation New Scholar in Aging.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California - Los Angeles. The original article was written by Stuart Wolpert. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Michael Rera, Sepehr Bahadorani, Jaehyoung Cho, Christopher L. Koehler, Matthew Ulgherait, Jae H. Hur, William S. Ansari, Thomas Lo, D. Leanne Jones, David W. Walker. Modulation of Longevity and Tissue Homeostasis by the Drosophila PGC-1 Homolog. Cell Metabolism, 2011; 14 (5): 623 DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2011.09.013

Cite This Page:

University of California - Los Angeles. "Biologists slow the aging process in fruit flies: Study has implications for humans." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 November 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111109093945.htm>.
University of California - Los Angeles. (2011, November 11). Biologists slow the aging process in fruit flies: Study has implications for humans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111109093945.htm
University of California - Los Angeles. "Biologists slow the aging process in fruit flies: Study has implications for humans." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111109093945.htm (accessed August 1, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Friday, August 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

House Republicans Vote to Sue Obama Over Healthcare Law

House Republicans Vote to Sue Obama Over Healthcare Law

Reuters - US Online Video (July 31, 2014) — The Republican-led House of Representatives votes to sue President Obama, accusing him of overstepping his executive authority in making changes to the Affordable Care Act. Mana Rabiee reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite Health Questions, E-Cigs Are Beneficial: Study

Despite Health Questions, E-Cigs Are Beneficial: Study

Newsy (July 31, 2014) — Citing 81 previous studies, new research out of London suggests the benefits of smoking e-cigarettes instead of regular ones outweighs the risks. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

AP (July 31, 2014) — Sarasota County, Florida health officials have issued a warning against eating raw oysters and exposing open wounds to coastal and inland waters after a dangerous bacteria killed one person and made another sick. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 30, 2014) — Obamacare-related costs were said to be behind the profit plunge at Wellpoint and Humana, but Wellpoint sees the new exchanges boosting its earnings for the full year. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins