Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

How B cells may generate antibodies after vaccination

Date:
December 15, 2011
Source:
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine
Summary:
Scientists have shown how immune cells, called B lymphocytes, are able to produce daughter cells that are not equal, a finding that might explain how lifelong antibodies are made after vaccination.

Cell finishing division, with one of the linked daughter cells inheriting more of the green-stained protein compared to the other.
Credit: Burton Barnett, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

Steve Reiner, MD, professor of Medicine, and Burton Barnett, a doctoral student in the Reiner lab at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, have shown how immune cells, called B lymphocytes, are able to produce daughter cells that are not equal, a finding that might explain how lifelong antibodies are made after vaccination.

How do immune cells make daughter cells that are different from one another, rather than splitting into identical daughter cells? The team's paper, published this week online in Science, shows how one cell type can reliably produce cell diversity. Motile B cells that don't have life-long attachments with other cells, as say a layer of skin cells do, can receive cues from other immune cells, namely helper T cells, so that they attach to each other and influence the outcome of B-cell division. The researchers showed that a T cell forms a temporary attachment to a B cell, which induces the B cell to divide, resulting in daughter cells that are different on the level of the proteins they inherit. The pairing and dividing occurs in the lymphoid organs, such as the spleen, that respond to vaccination.

B cells circulate throughout the body via the bloodstream, and upon infection are recruited to fight the offending germ. During this fight, the recruited B cells must generate multiple types of daughter cells to be effective. One of these cells makes the antibodies that destroy the germ, and are what make vaccinations effective. The other type of cell improves the quality of the antibodies that can be made.

The Penn team found that B cells segregate a transcriptional protein called Bcl6, the protein receptor for interleukin-21, and another protein called atypical PKC to one side of the plane of division during cell replication, generating unequal inheritance of fate-altering molecules by daughter cells. These three proteins tell the B cell which type of daughter cell to become; and by making daughter cells with more or less of these proteins, B cells can give rise to cells that are antibody factories through division.

The team is interested in using this discovery to make better vaccines. They are also expecting that the ability of wandering immune cells to give birth to non-identical daughters may explain how our blood cells can also turn into cancers like leukemia.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Burton E. Barnett, Maria L. Ciocca, Radhika Goenka, Lisa G. Barnett, Junmin Wu, Terri M. Laufer, Janis K. Burkhardt, Michael P. Cancro, and Steven L. Reiner. Asymmetric B Cell Division in the Germinal Center Reaction. Science, 15 December 2011 DOI: 10.1126/science.1213495

Cite This Page:

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. "How B cells may generate antibodies after vaccination." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 December 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111215141623.htm>.
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. (2011, December 15). How B cells may generate antibodies after vaccination. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111215141623.htm
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. "How B cells may generate antibodies after vaccination." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111215141623.htm (accessed April 19, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, April 19, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Nine-Month-Old Baby Can't Open His Mouth

Nine-Month-Old Baby Can't Open His Mouth

Newsy (Apr. 19, 2014) Nine-month-old Wyatt Scott was born with a rare disorder called congenital trismus, which prevents him from opening his mouth. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
'Holy Grail' Of Weight Loss? New Find Could Be It

'Holy Grail' Of Weight Loss? New Find Could Be It

Newsy (Apr. 18, 2014) In a potential breakthrough for future obesity treatments, scientists have used MRI scans to pinpoint brown fat in a living adult for the first time. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Little Progress Made In Fighting Food Poisoning, CDC Says

Little Progress Made In Fighting Food Poisoning, CDC Says

Newsy (Apr. 18, 2014) A new report shows rates of two foodborne infections increased in the U.S. in recent years, while salmonella actually dropped 9 percent. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Scientists Create Stem Cells From Adult Skin Cells

Scientists Create Stem Cells From Adult Skin Cells

Newsy (Apr. 17, 2014) The breakthrough could mean a cure for some serious diseases and even the possibility of human cloning, but it's all still a way off. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins