Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

A protein's role in helping cells repair DNA damage

Date:
November 1, 2012
Source:
University at Buffalo
Summary:
Scientists have described the role that a protein called TFIIB plays in helping cells repair DNA damage, a critical function for preventing the growth of tumors.

In a new study, University at Buffalo scientists describe the role that a protein called TFIIB plays in helping cells repair DNA damage, a critical function for preventing the growth of tumors.

Related Articles


The research appeared online on Oct. 30 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) Early Edition.

TFIIB, short for "transcription factor II B," is a protein that binds to DNA in cells to initiate the process of transcription, which is critical for building new proteins.

When DNA damage occurs, TFIIB is altered in a way that halts general transcription, enabling a cell to give priority to repair, the researchers found. With the shut-down in effect, cells are able to prioritize the important functions carried out by a tumor-suppressing protein called p53, said lead author Jayasha Shandilya, a postdoctoral researcher in UB's Department of Biological Sciences.

"P53 is a very important protein in humans and other multicellular organisms," Shandilya said. "It is called the 'guardian of the genome' because it helps maintain the stability of the genome."

About half of cancer cases involve a mutation or deletion of the p53 gene. When DNA is damaged, it activates p53, which not only stimulates the DNA repair pathway, but also triggers the synthesis of proteins that stop cells from dividing before problems are fixed, she said. In cases where the damage is irreparable, p53 initiates apoptosis, a process of programmed cell death.

In PNAS, Shandilya and colleagues report that for normal transcription to occur, TFIIB must undergo a process called phosphorylation, in which a phosphate group is attached to the protein.

But when the scientists studied cells treated with DNA damaging agents, they found that TFIIB was dephosphorylated, preventing general transcription and enabling the cells to focus resources on helping p53 carry out its tumor suppressing functions. In essence, p53 can bypass the need for TFIIB phosphorylation to activate transcription of its target genes, which are vital for DNA damage response.

Shandilya's colleagues on the PNAS paper are Yuming Wang, currently working at Cancer Research UK, and Stefan Roberts, assistant professor of biological sciences. Roberts oversaw the study, with funding from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, one of the National Institutes of Health.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University at Buffalo. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. J. Shandilya, Y. Wang, S. G. E. Roberts. TFIIB dephosphorylation links transcription inhibition with the p53-dependent DNA damage response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1207483109

Cite This Page:

University at Buffalo. "A protein's role in helping cells repair DNA damage." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 November 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121101131603.htm>.
University at Buffalo. (2012, November 1). A protein's role in helping cells repair DNA damage. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 26, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121101131603.htm
University at Buffalo. "A protein's role in helping cells repair DNA damage." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121101131603.htm (accessed January 26, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, January 26, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Ebola Mistakes Should Serve a Lesson Says WHO

Ebola Mistakes Should Serve a Lesson Says WHO

AFP (Jan. 25, 2015) The World Health Organization&apos;s chief on Sunday admitted the UN agency had been caught napping on Ebola, saying it should serve a lesson to avoid similar mistakes in future. Duration: 00:55 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Disneyland Measles Outbreak Spreads To 5 States

Disneyland Measles Outbreak Spreads To 5 States

Newsy (Jan. 24, 2015) Much of the Disneyland measles outbreak is being blamed on the anti-vaccination movement. The CDC encourages just about everyone get immunized. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Growing Measles Outbreak Worries Calif. Parents

Growing Measles Outbreak Worries Calif. Parents

AP (Jan. 23, 2015) Public health officials are rushing to contain a measles outbreak that has sickened 70 people across 6 states and Mexico. The AP&apos;s Raquel Maria Dillon has more. (Jan. 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Smart Wristband to Shock Away Bad Habits

Smart Wristband to Shock Away Bad Habits

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Jan. 23, 2015) A Boston start-up is developing a wristband they say will help users break bad habits by jolting them with an electric shock. Ben Gruber reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins