Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Taking the 'pulse' of volcanoes using satellite images

Date:
November 5, 2012
Source:
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science
Summary:
A new study uses satellite data to investigate deformation prior to the eruption of active volcanoes in Indonesia's west Sunda arc.

This image shows averaged 2006-2009 ground velocity map of the west Sunda volcanic region from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS satellite. Positive velocity (red colors) represents movement towards the satellite (e.g. uplift) and negative velocity (blue colors) movement away from the satellite (e.g. subsidence). Locations of volcanoes are marked by black triangles, historically active volcanoes by red triangles. Insets show six inflating volcanoes.
Credit: Estelle Chaussard, University of Miami

A new study by scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science uses Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to investigate deformation prior to the eruption of active volcanoes in Indonesia's west Sunda arc. Led by geophysicist Estelle Chaussard and UM Professor Falk Amelung, the study uncovered evidence that several volcanoes did in fact 'inflate' prior to eruptions due to the rise of magma. The fact that such deformation could be detected by satellite is a major step forward in volcanology; it is the first unambiguous evidence that remotely detected ground deformation could help to forecast eruptions at volcanoes.

"Surveying entire volcanic regions using satellite data is of primary importance to the detection of ground deformation prior to the onset of eruptions. If volcanic inflation is observed, it can help us to predict where the next eruption may occur. Moreover, in regions like Indonesia, where volcanoes are prevalent and pose a threat to millions of people, and where ground-based monitoring is sparse, remote sensing via satellite could become a major forecasting tool," said Chaussard.

Analyzing more than 800 InSAR images from the Japanese Space Exploration Agency's ALOS satellite, the team surveyed 79 volcanoes in Indonesia between 2006 and 2009. They detected deformation at six volcanic centers, three of which erupted after the observation period, confirming that inflation is a common precursor of volcanic eruptions at west Sunda volcanoes.

"The notion of detecting deformation prior to a volcanic eruption has been around for a while," said Amelung, who has been studying active volcanoes for 15 years. "Because this region is so volcanically active, our use of InSAR has been very successful. We now have a tool that can tell us where eruptions are more likely to occur."

The team will now study other parts of Indonesia and then in the Philippines, also prone to volcanic activity. They will use data from the Japanese Space Agency's ALOS-2 which will be launched next year.

"The monitoring of changes to the Earth's surface helps us to better predict the onset of volcanic activity, which can have devastating impacts on human life," said Amelung. "Like with earthquakes and tsunamis, however, we cannot predict activity with certainty, but we hope that new tools like satellite remote sensing will help us to gather critical information in near real-time so we can anticipate the risk of eruptions and deploy resources in a timely manner."

This study also reveals that there are regional trends in depths of magma storage. Indonesian volcanoes have magma reservoirs at shallow depths probably due to the tectonic setting of the region, which account for the way the region is deforming. If a volcanic chamber is located close to the surface it is usually associated with a higher risk for significant eruption, thus these observations play a major role in volcanic hazard assessment.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Estelle Chaussard and Falk Amelung. Precursory inflation of shallow magma revervoirs at west Sunda volcanoes detected by InSAR. Geophysical Research Letters, 2012

Cite This Page:

University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. "Taking the 'pulse' of volcanoes using satellite images." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 November 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121105100923.htm>.
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. (2012, November 5). Taking the 'pulse' of volcanoes using satellite images. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121105100923.htm
University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. "Taking the 'pulse' of volcanoes using satellite images." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121105100923.htm (accessed July 22, 2014).

Share This




More Earth & Climate News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Shark Sightings a Big Catch for Cape Tourism

Shark Sightings a Big Catch for Cape Tourism

AP (July 21, 2014) A rise in shark sightings along the shores of Chatham, Massachusetts is driving a surge of eager vacationers to the beach town looking to catch a glimpse of a great white. (July 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Spectacular Lightning Storm Hits London

Spectacular Lightning Storm Hits London

AFP (July 19, 2014) A spectaCular lightning storm struck the UK overnight Friday. Images of lightning strikes over the Shard and Tower Bridge in central London. Duration: 00:23 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
A Centuries' Old British Tradition Is Far from a Swan Song

A Centuries' Old British Tradition Is Far from a Swan Song

AFP (July 19, 2014) As if it weren't enough that the Queen is the Sovereign of the UK and 15 other Commonwealth realms, she is also the owner of all Britain's unmarked swans. Duration: 02:18 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: High Winds Push Growing Washington Widlfire

Raw: High Winds Push Growing Washington Widlfire

AP (July 19, 2014) Pushed by howling, erratic winds, a massive wildfire in north-central Washington was growing rapidly and burning in new directions Saturday. (July 19) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins