Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Quantum kisses change the color of nothing: New ways to measure the world at the scale of single atoms and molecules

Date:
November 7, 2012
Source:
University of Cambridge
Summary:
Even empty gaps have a color. Now scientists have shown that quantum jumps of electrons can change the color of gaps between nano-sized balls of gold. The new results set a fundamental quantum limit on how tightly light can be trapped.

Illustration of nano-sized balls of gold.
Credit: M Hawkeye, NanoPhotonics, Cambridge

Even empty gaps have a colour. Now scientists have shown that quantum jumps of electrons can change the colour of gaps between nano-sized balls of gold. The new results, published today in the journal Nature, set a fundamental quantum limit on how tightly light can be trapped.

The team from the Universities of Cambridge, the Basque Country and Paris have combined tour de force experiments with advanced theories to show how light interacts with matter at nanometre sizes. The work shows how they can literally see quantum mechanics in action in air at room temperature.

Because electrons in a metal move easily, shining light onto a tiny crack pushes electric charges onto and off each crack face in turn, at optical frequencies. The oscillating charge across the gap produces a 'plasmonic' colour for the ghostly region in-between, but only when the gap is small enough.

Team leader Professor Jeremy Baumberg from the University of Cambridge Cavendish Laboratory suggests we think of this like the tension building between a flirtatious couple staring into each other's eyes. As their faces get closer the tension mounts, and only a kiss discharges this energy.

In the new experiments, the gap is shrunk below 1nm (1 billionth of a metre) which strongly reddens the gap colour as the charge builds up. However because electrons can jump across the gap by quantum tunnelling, the charge can drain away when the gap is below 0.35nm, seen as a blue-shifting of the colour. As Baumberg says, "It is as if you can kiss without quite touching lips."

Matt Hawkeye, from the experimental team at Cambridge, said: "Lining up the two nano-balls of gold is like closing your eyes and touching together two needles strapped to the end of your fingers. It has taken years of practise to get good at it."

Prof Javier Aizpurua, leader of the theoretical team from San Sebastian complains: "Trying to model so many electrons oscillating inside the gold just cannot be done with existing theories." He has had to fuse classical and quantum views of the world to even predict the colour shifts seen in experiment.

The new insights from this work suggest ways to measure the world down to the scale of single atoms and molecules, and strategies to make useful tiny devices.

The research is funded as part of a UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) investment in the Cambridge NanoPhotonics Centre, as well as EU and Ikerbasque funding that joins the teams together.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Cambridge. The original article is licensed under a Creative Commons Licence. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Kevin J. Savage, Matthew M. Hawkeye, Rubén Esteban, Andrei G. Borisov, Javier Aizpurua, Jeremy J. Baumberg. Revealing the quantum regime in tunnelling plasmonics. Nature, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/nature11653

Cite This Page:

University of Cambridge. "Quantum kisses change the color of nothing: New ways to measure the world at the scale of single atoms and molecules." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 November 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121107132908.htm>.
University of Cambridge. (2012, November 7). Quantum kisses change the color of nothing: New ways to measure the world at the scale of single atoms and molecules. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121107132908.htm
University of Cambridge. "Quantum kisses change the color of nothing: New ways to measure the world at the scale of single atoms and molecules." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121107132908.htm (accessed April 23, 2014).

Share This



More Matter & Energy News

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Is North Korea Planning Nuclear Test #4?

Is North Korea Planning Nuclear Test #4?

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) — South Korean officials say North Korea is preparing to conduct another nuclear test, but is Pyongyang just bluffing this time? Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
China Falls for 4x4s at Beijing Auto Show

China Falls for 4x4s at Beijing Auto Show

AFP (Apr. 22, 2014) — The urban 4x4 is the latest must-have for Chinese drivers, whose conversion to the cult of the SUV is the talking point of this year's Beijing auto show. Duration: 00:40 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Lytro Introduces 'Illum,' A Professional Light-Field Camera

Lytro Introduces 'Illum,' A Professional Light-Field Camera

Newsy (Apr. 22, 2014) — The light-field photography engineers at Lytro unveiled their next innovation: a professional DSLR-like camera called "Illum." Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
3 Reasons Why Harley Davidson Is Selling Tons of Epic Hogs

3 Reasons Why Harley Davidson Is Selling Tons of Epic Hogs

TheStreet (Apr. 22, 2014) — Sales of motorcycles have continued to ride back from the depths of hell known as the Great Recession. Excluding scooters, sales of motorcycles increased 3% in 2013. In units, however, at 465,000 sold last year, the total remained about 50% below the peak hit in 2007. Industry leader Harley Davidson’s shareholders have benefited both by the industry recovery and positive headlines emanating from the company. Belus Capital Advisors CEO Brian Sozzi takes you beyond the headlines of the motorcycle maker. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins