Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Seeing through HIV's disguises

Date:
February 27, 2013
Source:
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Summary:
Studying HIV-1, the most common and infectious HIV subtype, scientists have identified 25 human proteins "stolen" by the virus that may be critical to its ability to infect new cells. The researchers believe these 25 proteins may be particularly important because they are found in HIV-1 viruses coming from two very different types of infected cells.

New HIV particles exiting an infected T-cell.
Credit: NIH

Studying HIV-1, the most common and infectious HIV subtype, Johns Hopkins scientists have identified 25 human proteins "stolen" by the virus that may be critical to its ability to infect new cells. HIV-1 viruses capture many human proteins from the cells they infect but the researchers believe these 25 proteins may be particularly important because they are found in HIV-1 viruses coming from two very different types of infected cells. A report on the discovery, published online in the Journal of Proteome Research on Feb. 22, could help in building diagnostic tools and novel treatment strategies to fight HIV infection.

When a new HIV particle emerges from an infected human cell, it wraps itself in membrane and proteins from the host cell, effectively disguising itself from the immune system's sentinels. Scientists believe that some of these proteins are specifically "chosen" by the virus in order to enhance its ability to survive, while other proteins may be just randomly caught up in the viral packaging.

"Human proteins incorporated into viruses could potentially be used to find, and selectively kill, cells harboring HIV, but the problem is that HIV can steal hundreds of different proteins unique to each cell type that it infects, leaving too many targets for researchers and drug companies to chase after," according to David Graham, Ph.D., the senior author of the study report and assistant professor of molecular and comparative pathobiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. The new research, he says, narrows the target pool to a small number of proteins that may be most important for HIV infection and survival.

HIV infects several types of cells throughout the body, most notably CD4+ T-cells and macrophages, both major parts of the immune system. Graham and his team suspected that a comparison of human proteins incorporated into HIV particles from different cell types could lead them to the human proteins important to the virus' disease activity.

After isolating HIV-1 particles from lab-grown human CD4+ T-cells, Graham and his team used powerful protein sequencing and bioinformatics tools to identify all of the associated human proteins. They then used the same bioinformatics tools to re-analyze protein content information from HIV-1 particles isolated from lab-grown human macrophages, data previously published by another group of researchers.

With the help of sophisticated computing, the team identified 279 proteins taken up by HIV-1 particles from one or the other cell type. Of these, only 25 were shared by viruses from both cell types.

One protein the research team identified that could be particularly important to diagnosis and treatment is CD44, because it appears to be the only one of the 25 capable of binding to other cells. It helps the viruses attach themselves to sites of inflammation. Graham suggests that "this makes a lot of sense for a virus that likes to infect T-cells and macrophages because both types of cells migrate to sites of inflammation to help out. Little do they know that HIV viruses are lying in wait."

Other authors of the report include Michael Linde, David Colquhoun, Ceereena Mohien, Thomas Kole, Veronica Aquino and the late Robert Cotter of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Nathan Edwards of Georgetown University; and James Hildreth from the University of California, Davis.

This work was supported by grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (contract NHLBI-HV-10-05_(2)), the National Institute of Mental Health (P01 MH070306) and the Johns Hopkins University Dean's Office.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Michael E. Linde, David R. Colquhoun, Ceereena Ubaida Mohien, Thomas Kole, Veronica Aquino, Robert J Cotter, Nathan J. Edwards, James E.K. Hildreth, David R. Graham. The conserved set of host proteins incorporated into HIV-1 virions suggests a common egress pathway in multiple cell types. Journal of Proteome Research, 2013; 130222172646006 DOI: 10.1021/pr300918r

Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins Medicine. "Seeing through HIV's disguises." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 February 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130227102058.htm>.
Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2013, February 27). Seeing through HIV's disguises. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130227102058.htm
Johns Hopkins Medicine. "Seeing through HIV's disguises." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/02/130227102058.htm (accessed July 28, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Monday, July 28, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

AP (July 28, 2014) Classes are being offered nationwide to encourage African Americans to learn about cooking fresh foods based on traditional African cuisine. The program is trying to combat obesity, heart disease and other ailments often linked to diet. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
West Africa Gripped by Deadly Ebola Outbreak

West Africa Gripped by Deadly Ebola Outbreak

AFP (July 28, 2014) The worst-ever outbreak of the deadly Ebola epidemic grips west Africa, killing hundreds. Duration: 00:48 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Trees Could Save More Than 850 Lives Each Year

Trees Could Save More Than 850 Lives Each Year

Newsy (July 27, 2014) A national study conducted by the USDA Forest Service found that trees collectively save more than 850 lives on an annual basis. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Google's Next Frontier: The Human Body

Google's Next Frontier: The Human Body

Newsy (July 27, 2014) Google is collecting genetic and molecular information to paint a picture of the perfectly healthy human. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins