Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Molecular switch for cheaper biofuel

Date:
June 3, 2013
Source:
Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna
Summary:
Lignocellulosic waste such as sawdust or straw can be used to produce biofuel -- but only if the long cellulose and xylan chains can be successfully broken down into smaller sugar molecules. To do this, fungi are used which, by means of a specific chemical signal, can be made to produce the necessary enzymes. Scientist have now genetically modified fungi in order to make biofuel production significantly cheaper.

Many different fungal strains are used at the Vienna University of Technology.
Credit: Image courtesy of Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna

Lignocellulosic waste such as sawdust or straw can be used to produce biofuel -- but only if the long cellulose and xylan chains can be successfully broken down into smaller sugar molecules. To do this, fungi are used which, by means of a specific chemical signal, can be made to produce the necessary enzymes. Because this procedure is, however, very expensive, Vienna University of Technology has been investigating the molecular switch that regulates enzyme production in the fungus. As a result, it is now possible to manufacture genetically modified fungi that produce the necessary enzymes fully independently, thus making biofuel production significantly cheaper.

Recycling Waste, not Wasting Food

Biofuel can be obtained quite easily from starchy plants -- but this places fuel production in competition with food production. Manufacturing biofuel from lignocellulose is therefore a preferable option. "Lignocellulose from wood waste or straw is the world's most common renewable raw material but, due to its complex structure, it is significantly more difficult to exploit than starch" explains Prof. Robert Mach from the Institute of Chemical Engineering at Vienna University of Technology.

Over 60 Times More Expensive than Gold

Biofuel manufacturing uses the Trichoderma fungus, which produces enzymes that are capable of breaking down the cellulose and xylan chains into sugar molecules. The fungus does not, however, always produce these enzymes; production must be stimulated using what is known as an 'inductor' (disaccharide sophorose). Sophorose as a pure substance currently has a market value of around EUR 2500 per gram -- by way of comparison, one gram of gold costs around EUR 40. "The high costs of the chemical inductor are a decisive price driver in biofuel manufacturing," says Robert Mach.

Permanently Active Thanks to Gene Mutation

Many different strains of fungus have been analysed at Vienna University of Technology, with varying productivity. "In one of the strains, a random mutation occurred, which stopped the chemical switch in the fungus from functioning," reports Robert Mach. Even without an inductor, this mutated fungus always produces the desired enzymes and, unlike other strains of fungus, does not stop doing so once a high glucose concentration has been reached. "In these fungi, the molecular switch is always set to enzyme production," says Christian Derntl, lead author of the recent publication 'Biotechnology for Biofuels'.

Through genetic analysis, it has been possible to identify which gene is required for this behaviour and which protein the gene mutation affects. As a result, it has been possible to induce the same mutation in a targeted fashion in other strains of fungus. "We have understood the mechanism of this molecular switch and, consequently, many wonderful possibilities are opening up for us," says project group leader Astrid Mach-Aigner. Other genetic changes are now being tested in a targeted manner, which may even result in further possibilities for improvement, leading to even more productive fungi. This would make the production of fuel from lignocellulose more economically attractive.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Derntl et al. RESEARCH Open Access Mutation of the Xylanase regulator 1 causes a glucose blind hydrolase expressing phenotype in industrially used Trichoderma strains. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 2013, 6:62 [link]

Cite This Page:

Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna. "Molecular switch for cheaper biofuel." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 June 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130603092326.htm>.
Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna. (2013, June 3). Molecular switch for cheaper biofuel. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130603092326.htm
Vienna University of Technology, TU Vienna. "Molecular switch for cheaper biofuel." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130603092326.htm (accessed July 25, 2014).

Share This




More Plants & Animals News

Friday, July 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Boy Attacked by Shark in Florida

Boy Attacked by Shark in Florida

Reuters - US Online Video (July 24, 2014) An 8-year-old boy is bitten in the leg by a shark while vacationing at a Florida beach. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Goma Cheese Brings Whiff of New Hope to DRC

Goma Cheese Brings Whiff of New Hope to DRC

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 24, 2014) The eastern region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, mainly known for conflict and instability, is an unlikely place for the production of fine cheese. But a farm in the village of Masisi, in North Kivu is slowly transforming perceptions of the area. Known simply as Goma cheese, the Congolese version of Dutch gouda has gained popularity through out the region. Ciara Sutton reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Dogs Appear To Become Jealous Of Owners' Attention

Dogs Appear To Become Jealous Of Owners' Attention

Newsy (July 23, 2014) A U.C. San Diego researcher says jealousy isn't just a human trait, and dogs aren't the best at sharing the attention of humans with other dogs. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Professor Creates Site Revealing Where People's Cats Live

Professor Creates Site Revealing Where People's Cats Live

Newsy (July 23, 2014) ​It's called I Know Where Your Cat Lives, and you can keep hitting the "Random Cat" button to find more real cats all over the world. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

    Health News

      Environment News

        Technology News



          Save/Print:
          Share:

          Free Subscriptions


          Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

          Get Social & Mobile


          Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

          Have Feedback?


          Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
          Mobile: iPhone Android Web
          Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
          Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
          Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins