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Earth's core affects length of day

Date:
July 11, 2013
Source:
University of Liverpool
Summary:
Researchers have found that variations in the length of day over periods of between one and 10 years are caused by processes in the Earth's core.

The form of core motions giving rise to variations in Earth’s length of day.
Credit: Image courtesy of University of Liverpool

Researchers studied the variations and fluctuations in the length of day over a one to 10 year period between 1962 and 2012

Research at the University of Liverpool has found that variations in the length of day over periods of between one and 10 years are caused by processes in Earth's core.

Earth rotates once per day, but the length of this day varies. A year, 300million years ago, lasted about 450 days and a day would last about 21 hours.

Length of day increases

As a result of the slowing down of Earth's rotation the length of day has increased.

The rotation of Earth on its axis, however, is affected by a number of other factors -- for example, the force of the wind against mountain ranges changes the length of the day by plus or minus a millisecond over a period of a year.

Professor Richard Holme, from the School of Environmental Sciences, studied the variations and fluctuations in the length of day over a one to 10 year period between 1962 and 2012. The study took account of the effects on Earth's rotation of atmospheric and oceanic processes to produce a model of the variations in the length of day on time scales longer than a year.

Professor Holme said: "The model shows well-known variations on decadal time scales, but importantly resolves changes over periods between one and 10 years.

"Previously these changes were poorly characterised; the study shows they can be explained by just two key signals, a steady 5.9 year oscillation and episodic jumps which occur at the same time as abrupt changes in the Earth's magnetic field, generated in the Earth's core.

He added: "This study changes fundamentally our understanding of short-period dynamics of the Earth's fluid core. It leads us to conclude that the Earth's lower mantle, which sits above the Earth's outer core, is a poor conductor of electricity giving us new insight into the chemistry and mineralogy of the Earth's deep interior."

The research was conducted in partnership with the Universitι Paris Diderot and is published in Nature.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Liverpool. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. R. Holme, O. de Viron. Characterization and implications of intradecadal variations in length of day. Nature, 2013; 499 (7457): 202 DOI: 10.1038/nature12282

Cite This Page:

University of Liverpool. "Earth's core affects length of day." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 July 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130711103156.htm>.
University of Liverpool. (2013, July 11). Earth's core affects length of day. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130711103156.htm
University of Liverpool. "Earth's core affects length of day." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130711103156.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

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