Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Simulating flow from volcanoes and oil spills

Date:
August 12, 2013
Source:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Summary:
Some time around 37,000 BCE a massive volcano erupted in the Campanian region of Italy, blanketing much of Europe with ash, stunting plant growth and possibly dooming the Neanderthals. While our prehistoric relatives had no way to know the ash cloud was coming, a recent study provides a new tool that may have predicted what path volcanic debris would take.

Some time around 37,000 BCE a massive volcano erupted in the Campanian region of Italy, blanketing much of Europe with ash, stunting plant growth and possibly dooming the Neanderthals. While our prehistoric relatives had no way to know the ash cloud was coming, a recent study provides a new tool that may have predicted what path volcanic debris would take.

"This paper provides a model for the pattern of the ash cloud if the wind is blowing past an eruption of a given size," said Peter Baines, a scientist at the University of Melbourne in Australia who did the study. He published his work in the journal Physics of Fluids.

Volcanic eruptions are an example of what Baines calls an "intrusion." Other examples include exhaust rising from a chimney, sewage flowing into the ocean, and the oil spilling underwater in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster. In all these events, a fluid rises into a density-stratified environment like the atmosphere or the ocean. As the fluid rises, it is pushed by winds or currents, and this crossflow can cause the intruding fluid to disperse far from its origin.

Scientists have previously modeled intrusions into a completely calm environment, but before Baines nobody had ever attempted to introduce the effect of crosswinds, a necessary step toward making such models more realistic and useful.

Predicting Ash and Oil Flows

Baines thinks his work could be used to estimate how much ash is pouring out of a volcano, or how fast oil is gushing from a hole in the sea floor.

Baines is now working with volcanologists in Britain to apply his model to historic eruptions like the Campanian event and the catastrophic Toba supereruption that occurred around 73,000 years ago in Indonesia. The scientists are hoping to use ash deposits from these volcanoes to develop a sharper picture of the amount and speed of the ejected material.

"Most of what we know about prehistoric eruptions is from sedimentary records," said Baines. "You then have to try to infer what the nature of the eruption was, when this is the only information you've got."

Baines said his model can also help forecast the deposition patterns of future eruptions. And that should give us a big leg up on the poor Neanderthals.

How the Model Works

To understand how intrusions work in the presence of crossflows, Baines developed what he calls a semi-analytical model. He began with fluid dynamics equations, and then used numerical calculations to arrive at approximate solutions for specifics combinations of source flow and spread rates, and crosswind speed. He found that, under normal wind speeds, the intruding fluid reached a maximum thickness at a certain distance upstream from the source, and thinned in the downstream direction. The distance to the upstream stagnation point depended much more on the rate of source flow than the crossflow speed.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Institute of Physics (AIP). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Peter G. Baines. The dynamics of intrusions into a density-stratified crossflow. Physics of Fluids, 2013; 25 (7): 076601 DOI: 10.1063/1.4811850

Cite This Page:

American Institute of Physics (AIP). "Simulating flow from volcanoes and oil spills." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 August 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130812121145.htm>.
American Institute of Physics (AIP). (2013, August 12). Simulating flow from volcanoes and oil spills. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130812121145.htm
American Institute of Physics (AIP). "Simulating flow from volcanoes and oil spills." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/08/130812121145.htm (accessed July 22, 2014).

Share This




More Earth & Climate News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

New Orleans Plans to Recycle Cigarette Butts

New Orleans Plans to Recycle Cigarette Butts

AP (July 21, 2014) — New Orleans is the first U.S. city to participate in a large-scale recycling effort for cigarette butts. The city is rolling out dozens of containers for smokers to use when they discard their butts. (July 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Shark Sightings a Big Catch for Cape Tourism

Shark Sightings a Big Catch for Cape Tourism

AP (July 21, 2014) — A rise in shark sightings along the shores of Chatham, Massachusetts is driving a surge of eager vacationers to the beach town looking to catch a glimpse of a great white. (July 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Spectacular Lightning Storm Hits London

Spectacular Lightning Storm Hits London

AFP (July 19, 2014) — A spectaCular lightning storm struck the UK overnight Friday. Images of lightning strikes over the Shard and Tower Bridge in central London. Duration: 00:23 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
A Centuries' Old British Tradition Is Far from a Swan Song

A Centuries' Old British Tradition Is Far from a Swan Song

AFP (July 19, 2014) — As if it weren't enough that the Queen is the Sovereign of the UK and 15 other Commonwealth realms, she is also the owner of all Britain's unmarked swans. Duration: 02:18 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins