Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Possible way to turn fungus from foe to friend

Date:
September 24, 2013
Source:
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Summary:
Candida albicans is a double agent: In most of us, it lives peacefully, but for people whose immune systems are compromised by HIV or other severe illnesses, it is frequently deadly. Now a new study shows how targeting a specific fungal component might turn the fungus from a lion back into a kitten.

Caption: When it enters the bloodstream, the normally harmless fungus Candida albicans can form extensions called hyphae in order to penetrate host tissue (left). On right, hyphae (green) invade intestinal cells (red, with nuclei stained blue).
Credit: JHMI

Candida albicans is a double agent: In most of us, it lives peacefully, but for people whose immune systems are compromised by HIV or other severe illnesses, it is frequently deadly. Now a new study from Johns Hopkins and Harvard Medical School shows how targeting a specific fungal component might turn the fungus from a lion back into a kitten.

Study results were reported this month in The Journal of Biological Chemistry.

"Treatment options for systemic Candida infections are limited, and a major difficulty in finding new drug targets is that fungi are closely related to us, so we risk hurting the patient as much as the pathogen," says Rajini Rao, Ph.D., a professor of physiology in the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "What we've identified is a function that is critical for virulence. If we could block this through medication, it would leave both the fungus and the host healthy while taking away Candida's ability to harm."

Candida lives in the guts of most people as one of many so-called "commensal microbes" -- that is, harmlessly. It can sometimes cause local infections of the mouth or genitals, known as thrush, that are treatable with over-the-counter antifungals. But given the opportunity to breach our defenses, Candida can cross into the bloodstream and switch from peaceful coexistence to attack mode, producing long filaments that dig into tissues and destroy them.

Unfortunately, Rao says, "there are only a few antifungal drugs, so it's particularly dangerous when drug resistance develops in Candida." For that reason, she says, "we're always looking for new chinks in its armor."

In her study, Rao and her collaborators looked for such a new chink in a part of Candida's cells known as the vacuole. The vacuole's main function is as a recycling center that chews up cellular waste, so it was a surprise when a previous study from her group found that a well-known antifungal drug prevented the vacuole from becoming acidic. This led them to suspect that acidification of the vacuole was important for virulence. The research team focused on V-ATPase, the enzyme responsible for making many compartments of the cell, including the vacuoles, acidic. Because humans have a very similar enzyme, the scientists weren't looking to eliminate it altogether -- "that would have been like taking a sledgehammer to cells," Rao explains. Rather, they homed in on just one of the enzyme's components, known as subunit a. Like many proteins in fungi and higher animals, there is more than one version of subunit a, which come from different genes -- a duplication that gives the organism a backup in case a mutation disables one of the genes.

Rao said first they altered Candida cells so that they could only use one or the other version of the subunit a gene. As expected, they found that inactivating either one had no effect because the other compensates in every function -- except one. It turned out that acidification of the vacuole exclusively depended on one version of the gene. This allowed them to test the importance of the vacuole's acidity on virulence, separate from the many other functions of the V-ATPase. Unable to acidify the vacuole, the fungus could no longer form the tentacle-like filaments that characterize its deadly form. When the researchers injected healthy Candida into the bloodstream of mice, nearly all died within a week. In contrast, mice injected with the strain of fungus that was unable to acidify the vacuole remained healthy and survived.

Rao says that this study reveals a vulnerability that could be exploited using drugs known to alter the pH of the vacuole, rendering Candida harmless while potentially posing little risk to infected patients. For example, previous studies from her lab showed that a drug already in use to treat a heart condition known as arrhythmia had the unexpected effect of blocking acidification of the fungal vacuole. The next step, she says, would be to screen drugs already approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration to increase the repertoire of antifungal agents to combat deadly fungal infections.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. C. Patenaude, Y. Zhang, B. Cormack, J. Kohler, R. Rao. Essential Role for Vacuolar Acidification in Candida albicans Virulence. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2013; 288 (36): 26256 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.494815

Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins Medicine. "Possible way to turn fungus from foe to friend." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 September 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130924122458.htm>.
Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2013, September 24). Possible way to turn fungus from foe to friend. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130924122458.htm
Johns Hopkins Medicine. "Possible way to turn fungus from foe to friend." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130924122458.htm (accessed September 30, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

California University Designs Sustainable Winery

California University Designs Sustainable Winery

Reuters - US Online Video (Sep. 27, 2014) Amid California's worst drought in decades, scientists at UC Davis design a sustainable winery that includes a water recycling system. Vanessa Johnston reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Argentina Worries Over Decline of Soybean Prices

Argentina Worries Over Decline of Soybean Prices

AFP (Sep. 27, 2014) The drop in price of soy on the international market is a cause for concern in Argentina, as soybean exports are a major source of income for Latin America's third largest economy. Duration: 01:10 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Mama Bear, Cubs Hang out in California Backyard

Mama Bear, Cubs Hang out in California Backyard

Reuters - US Online Video (Sep. 27, 2014) A mama bear and her two cubs climb trees, wrestle and take naps in the backyard of a Monrovia, California home. Vanessa Johnston reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
'Crazy' Climate Forces Colombian Farmers to Adapt

'Crazy' Climate Forces Colombian Farmers to Adapt

AFP (Sep. 26, 2014) Once upon a time, farming was a blissfully low-tech business on Colombia's northern plains. Duration: 02:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins