Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Intranasal vaccine protects mice against West Nile infection

Date:
January 28, 2014
Source:
American Society for Microbiology
Summary:
Researchers have developed a nasal vaccine formulation that provides protective immunity against West Nile virus infection in mice after only two doses.

Researchers from Duke University have developed a nasal vaccine formulation that provides protective immunity against West Nile virus (WNV) infection in mice after only 2 doses. They present their findings at the 2014 American Society for Microbiology Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research Meeting.

"Our results demonstrate that a needle-free WNV vaccine using only 2 vaccine doses is able to induce protective anti-WNV immunity," says Herman Staats, a researcher on the study. "A nasally-administered, needle-free vaccine able to rapidly induce protective immunity with minimal vaccine doses per subject would be beneficial for use during WNV outbreaks."

WNV is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause febrile illness, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). Though the virus has been known to be a cause of severe human disease for decades in parts of the Middle-East, Africa, Europe and Australia, it only first appeared in the United States in 1999. It has since spread across the United States and Canada, causing a reported 2,374 cases of infection in people, including 114 deaths in the year 2013 alone, according the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. While an injectable vaccine based on killed virus is available for horses, there is no vaccine available for humans.

In this study, Staats and his colleagues investigated optimizing the delivery of an antigen-based vaccine for WNV. Most vaccines that use purified protein antigens such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine or the human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV) utilize a total of three immunization to induce protective immunity. In this case, the researchers modified an existing experimental nasal vaccine formulation so that 2 doses of the vaccine administered over 14 days (instead of 3 doses over 21 days) could potentially provide immunity against WNV in mice.

The vaccine formulation was prepared by mixing the antigen and adjuvant compounds in a water based (saline) solution. The vaccine formulation was administered to the mice as nose drops using small volumes of the vaccine. For the 3 doses vaccine formulation, 15 micrograms of the West Nile Virus antigen was combined with the peptide and bacterial DNA adjuvants and administered to mice on day 0, day 7 and day 21. For the 2-dose vaccine, researchers tested both 45 and 60 micrograms of antigen administered on days 0 and 14.

"When mice were infected with West Nile Virus at day 60, the 2-dose vaccine utilizing 60 micrograms of antigen combined with adjuvants protected 100% of mice against morbidity and provided significant protection against weight loss. The 2-dose vaccine regimen using 45 micrograms of antigen combined with adjuvant and the 3-dose vaccine regimen utilizing 15 micrograms of antigen combined with adjuvants provided partial but not significant protection against morbidity or weight loss," says Staats.

Going forward, the researchers are planning future studies in rabbits to continue to develop the intranasal West Nile Virus vaccine. Rabbits have a nasal cavity size that is close to the size of the human nasal cavity and therefore is an ideal model to further develop needle-free intranasal vaccines.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Society for Microbiology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Society for Microbiology. "Intranasal vaccine protects mice against West Nile infection." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 28 January 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140128153942.htm>.
American Society for Microbiology. (2014, January 28). Intranasal vaccine protects mice against West Nile infection. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140128153942.htm
American Society for Microbiology. "Intranasal vaccine protects mice against West Nile infection." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140128153942.htm (accessed July 24, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Newsy (July 24, 2014) Sheik Umar Khan has treated many of the people infected in the Ebola outbreak, and now he's become one of them. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

AFP (July 24, 2014) America's death penalty debate raged Thursday after it took nearly two hours for Arizona to execute a prisoner who lost a Supreme Court battle challenging the experimental lethal drug cocktail. Duration: 00:55 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
China's Ageing Millions Look Forward to Bleak Future

China's Ageing Millions Look Forward to Bleak Future

AFP (July 24, 2014) China's elderly population is expanding so quickly that children struggle to look after them, pushing them to do something unexpected in Chinese society- move their parents into a nursing home. Duration: 02:07 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins