Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Antibodies that may cut risk of HIV infection better understood

Date:
March 19, 2014
Source:
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Summary:
What immune response should a vaccine elicit to prevent HIV infection? Two studies bring scientists closer to answering this question by identifying previously unrecognized attributes of antibodies that appear to have reduced the risk of HIV infection in the only clinical trial to show efficacy, albeit modest, of an experimental vaccine regimen in people.

What immune response should a vaccine elicit to prevent HIV infection? Two studies published online today bring scientists closer to answering this question by identifying previously unrecognized attributes of antibodies that appear to have reduced the risk of HIV infection in the only clinical trial to show efficacy, albeit modest, of an experimental vaccine regimen in people.

Related Articles


Earlier analyses of the results of that trial, known as RV144, suggested that antibodies to sites within a part of the HIV envelope called V1V2 correlated with reduced risk of HIV infection. These antibodies belong to a class called immunoglobulin G, or IgG. The new studies by two independent laboratories both found that only one subclass of V1V2-directed IgG antibodies -- the IgG3 subclass -- is associated with antiviral responses linked to the reduced risk of HIV infection seen in RV144. The experiments were led by Georgia D. Tomaras, Ph.D., of the Duke Human Vaccine Institute, and Galit Alter, Ph.D., of the Ragon Institute, with funding in part from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health.

In the study led by Dr. Tomaras, scientists found that V1V2-specific IgG3 antibodies correlated with a decreased risk of infection in RV144 vaccinees and were linked to HIV-eliminating activity. The researchers also discovered that the level of V1V2-specific IgG3 antibodies in vaccinees' blood waned rapidly, as did the efficacy of the investigational vaccines tested in the RV144 trial (from 60 percent efficacy at 12 months post-vaccination to 31.2 percent efficacy at 42 months). The study led by Dr. Alter demonstrated that RV144 vaccination induced antibodies able to direct multiple, coordinated HIV-eliminating activities, and that these activities were conducted primarily by V1V2-specific IgG3 antibodies.

More research is needed to determine whether V1V2-directed IgG3 antibodies actually protected some vaccinees from HIV infection, as well as whether there was a relationship between the fast decline in IgG3 antibodies and the sharp drop in efficacy of the investigational RV144 vaccines. Information from the current and ongoing studies will help scientists refine their efforts to design and test HIV vaccines that build on the success of RV144.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. A. W. Chung, M. Ghebremichael, H. Robinson, E. Brown, I. Choi, S. Lane, A.-S. Dugast, M. K. Schoen, M. Rolland, T. J. Suscovich, A. E. Mahan, L. Liao, H. Streeck, C. Andrews, S. Rerks-Ngarm, S. Nitayaphan, M. S. de Souza, J. Kaewkungwal, P. Pitisuttithum, D. Francis, N. L. Michael, J. H. Kim, C. Bailey-Kellogg, M. E. Ackerman, G. Alter. Polyfunctional Fc-Effector Profiles Mediated by IgG Subclass Selection Distinguish RV144 and VAX003 Vaccines. Science Translational Medicine, 2014; 6 (228): 228ra38 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3007736
  2. N. L. Yates, H.-X. Liao, Y. Fong, A. deCamp, N. A. Vandergrift, W. T. Williams, S. M. Alam, G. Ferrari, Z.-y. Yang, K. E. Seaton, P. W. Berman, M. D. Alpert, D. T. Evans, R. J. O'Connell, D. Francis, F. Sinangil, C. Lee, S. Nitayaphan, S. Rerks-Ngarm, J. Kaewkungwal, P. Pitisuttithum, J. Tartaglia, A. Pinter, S. Zolla-Pazner, P. B. Gilbert, G. J. Nabel, N. L. Michael, J. H. Kim, D. C. Montefiori, B. F. Haynes, G. D. Tomaras. Vaccine-Induced Env V1-V2 IgG3 Correlates with Lower HIV-1 Infection Risk and Declines Soon After Vaccination. Science Translational Medicine, 2014; 6 (228): 228ra39 DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3007730

Cite This Page:

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Antibodies that may cut risk of HIV infection better understood." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140319165208.htm>.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2014, March 19). Antibodies that may cut risk of HIV infection better understood. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140319165208.htm
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Antibodies that may cut risk of HIV infection better understood." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140319165208.htm (accessed December 22, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, December 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Christmas Kissing Good for Health

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Scientists in Amsterdam say couples transfer tens of millions of microbes when they kiss, encouraging healthy exposure to bacteria. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Brain-Dwelling Tapeworm Reveals Genetic Secrets

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 22, 2014) Cambridge scientists have unravelled the genetic code of a rare tapeworm that lived inside a patient's brain for at least four year. Researchers hope it will present new opportunities to diagnose and treat this invasive parasite. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Americans Drink More in the Winter

Americans Drink More in the Winter

Buzz60 (Dec. 22, 2014) The BACtrack breathalyzer app analyzed Americans' blood alcohol content and found out a whole lot of interesting things about their drinking habits. Mara Montalbano (@maramontalbano) has more. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Touch-Free Smart Phone Empowers Mobility-Impaired

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) A touch-free phone developed in Israel enables the mobility-impaired to operate smart phones with just a movement of the head. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins