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Impulsivity is risk factor for food addiction

Date:
May 6, 2014
Source:
Boston University Medical Center
Summary:
Have you ever said to yourself that you would only have a handful of potato chips from the bag then, minutes later, realized you ate the whole thing? A recent study shows that this type of impulsive behavior might not be easily controlled -- and could be a risk factor in the development of food addiction and eating disorders as a result of cellular activities in the part of the brain involved with reward.
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The research was led by Boston University School of Medicine (BUSM) and conducted in collaboration with the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. It also points out the common mechanisms involved between drug and food addiction. (Pictured L-R: Dr. Valentina Sabino, Cassie Moore, Dr. Clara Velazquez, Toni Ferragud and Dr. Pietro Cottone)
Credit: Image courtesy of Boston University Medical Center

Have you ever said to yourself that you would only have a handful of potato chips from the bag then, minutes later, realized you ate the whole thing? A recent study shows that this type of impulsive behavior might not be easily controlled -- and could be a risk factor in the development of food addiction and eating disorders as a result of cellular activities in the part of the brain involved with reward.

Research has shown that people with eating disorders and obesity are known to be more impulsive than healthy people. For example, they may be more likely to blurt out something that they later regret saying or to start an activity without thinking through the consequences. However, it was unclear whether the impulsivity existed before the dysfunctional eating behavior or if developed as a result of it.

BUSM researchers attempted to answer this question by measuring the inability to withhold an impulsive response in experimental models that were exposed to a diet high in sugar daily for one hour. Models shown to be more impulsive rapidly developed binge eating, showing heightened cravings and the loss of control over the junk diet (measured as inability to properly evaluate the negative consequences associated with ingestion of the sugary diet). Conversely, models shown to be less impulsive demonstrated the ability to appropriately control impulsive behavior and did not show abnormal eating behavior when exposed to the sugary diet.

Interestingly, the impulsive models showed increased expression of a transcription factor called Delta-FosB in the nucleus accumbens, an area of the brain involved in reward evaluation and impulsive behavior, indicating a potential biological component to this behavior.

"While impulsivity might have aided ancestors to choose calorie-rich foods when food was scarce, our study results suggest that, in today's calorie-rich environment, impulsivity promotes pathological overeating," said Pietro Cottone, PhD, co-director of the Laboratory of Addictive Disorders and associate professor of pharmacology and psychiatry at BUSM.

"Our results add further evidence to the idea that there are similar mechanisms involved in both drug and food addiction behavior," said Clara Velazquez-Sanchez, PhD, postdoctoral fellow in the Laboratory of Addictive Disorder and first author of the study.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Boston University Medical Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Clara Velázquez-Sánchez, Antonio Ferragud, Catherine F Moore, Barry J Everitt, Valentina Sabino, Pietro Cottone. High Trait Impulsivity Predicts Food Addiction-Like Behavior in the Rat. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/npp.2014.98

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Boston University Medical Center. "Impulsivity is risk factor for food addiction." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 May 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140506142157.htm>.
Boston University Medical Center. (2014, May 6). Impulsivity is risk factor for food addiction. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 31, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140506142157.htm
Boston University Medical Center. "Impulsivity is risk factor for food addiction." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140506142157.htm (accessed July 31, 2015).

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