Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Genetic profile predicts which bladder cancer patients will benefit from early chemotherapy

Date:
May 30, 2014
Source:
Fox Chase Cancer Center
Summary:
Three genetic changes can predict whether a patient will benefit from chemotherapy before surgery to remove bladder cancer, according to new findings. These results suggest that doctors may one day sequence patients' tumors for the presence of these three mutations, to determine who will likely benefit most from chemotherapy before surgery, said one investigator.

Three genetic changes can predict whether a patient will benefit from chemotherapy before surgery to remove bladder cancer, according to new findings presented by Fox Chase Cancer Center researchers during the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

During the study, 36 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer received chemotherapy before surgery, consisting of an accelerated regimen of methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (AMVAC). By the time surgery rolled around, 14 patients appeared cancer-free. All but one of these patients carried mutations in at least one of three specific genes; none of these mutations were present in any of the people who still harbored traces of cancer after AMVAC.

These results suggest that doctors may one day sequence patients' tumors for the presence of these three mutations, to determine who will likely benefit most from chemotherapy before surgery, said Elizabeth R. Plimack, MD, Attending Physician in the Department Medical Oncology at Fox Chase.

"The purpose of the study is to find ways to identify patients who are likely to respond to early chemotherapy," said Dr. Plimack. "For those patients who won't benefit from it, we can send them directly to surgery to save time. But if they carry at least one of these mutations, we can treat them knowing they are likely to respond," she noted.

To uncover a genetic pattern that predicted responses to AMVAC, Dr. Plimack and her colleagues in collaboration with Foundation Medicine sequenced 287 cancer-related genes in tissue samples taken before patients underwent chemotherapy. The analysis clearly landed on three genes, all associated with repairing damaged DNA, carried by all but one of the people who benefited from chemotherapy. To see such a clear distinction between the genetic profiles of responding and non-responding tumors is remarkable, Dr. Plimack added. "It is unusual to see statistics this good," she said.

Additionally, patients whose cancer disappeared after AMVAC tended to carry more mutations in their tumors than those with residual cancer at the time of surgery.

It makes sense that the three key genes are associated with DNA repair, said Dr. Plimack. Patients who carry these mutations will likely have more mutations because their cells cannot easily repair cellular damage, so when cancer starts, mutations quickly accumulate. But since cisplatin works by further damaging DNA, these same tumors are more likely to succumb to its effects, since they lack mechanisms to sidestep chemotherapy. "These patients may have developed cancer because a damaged cell couldn't repair itself, but once they have cancer, the defective DNA repair machinery makes the tumor more likely to respond to chemotherapy because the cells can't repair the additional damage caused by cisplatin," said Dr. Plimack.

The results point to a new way to screen patients to select those who will benefit most from cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Looking for these mutations involves a genomic sequencing test that's already commercially approved, and available to any clinician, said Dr. Plimack. But she cautioned that more work needs to be done, and she and her colleagues are now testing tissue samples from another set of patients to make sure the results hold up. "Although the statistics are exciting, and the mechanism makes sense, the results are preliminary. We do not recommend treatment decisions be made based on this test until it is validated"


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Fox Chase Cancer Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Fox Chase Cancer Center. "Genetic profile predicts which bladder cancer patients will benefit from early chemotherapy." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 May 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140530133342.htm>.
Fox Chase Cancer Center. (2014, May 30). Genetic profile predicts which bladder cancer patients will benefit from early chemotherapy. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140530133342.htm
Fox Chase Cancer Center. "Genetic profile predicts which bladder cancer patients will benefit from early chemotherapy." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140530133342.htm (accessed July 30, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Generics Eat Into Pfizer's Sales

Generics Eat Into Pfizer's Sales

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 29, 2014) Pfizer, the world's largest drug maker, cut full-year revenue forecasts because generics could cut into sales of its anti-arthritis drug, Celebrex. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Nigeria Ups Ebola Stakes on 1st Death

Nigeria Ups Ebola Stakes on 1st Death

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 29, 2014) Nigerian authorities have shut and quarantined a Lagos hospital where a Liberian man died of the Ebola virus, the first recorded case of the highly-infectious disease in Africa's most populous economy. David Pollard reports Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Running 5 Minutes A Day Might Add Years To Your Life

Running 5 Minutes A Day Might Add Years To Your Life

Newsy (July 29, 2014) According to a new study, just five minutes of running or jogging a day could add years to your life. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Outbreak Poses Little Threat To U.S.: CDC

Ebola Outbreak Poses Little Threat To U.S.: CDC

Newsy (July 29, 2014) The Ebola outbreak in West Africa poses little threat to Americans, according to officials with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins