Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Antibody-producing cells in people infected with HIV found

Date:
June 3, 2014
Source:
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Summary:
By analyzing the blood of almost 100 treated and untreated HIV-infected volunteers, a team of scientists has identified previously unknown characteristics of B cells in the context of HIV infection. B cells are the immune system cells that make antibodies to HIV and other pathogens. The findings augment the current understanding of how HIV disease develops and have implications for the timing of treatment.

By analyzing the blood of almost 100 treated and untreated HIV-infected volunteers, a team of scientists has identified previously unknown characteristics of B cells in the context of HIV infection. B cells are the immune system cells that make antibodies to HIV and other pathogens. The findings augment the current understanding of how HIV disease develops and have implications for the timing of treatment. Researchers at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, led the study.

Using advanced tools to probe B-cell responses to HIV and other pathogens in the laboratory, the researchers found that the B cells that make antibodies to HIV in infected, untreated people are abnormal in that they are more activated, unstable and unresponsive to further stimulation than normal B cells, and also are infrequently observed in healthy people. This finding may help explain why HIV-specific antibodies naturally produced by HIV-infected people do not clear the infection, according to the scientists.

The researchers also observed that when HIV-infected people start antiretroviral therapy, their B-cell response to HIV diminishes quantitatively but improves qualitatively, with normal B cells dominating. However, the earlier a person starts treatment for HIV, the greater their capacity to maintain their pre-treatment level of B-cell response to the virus. An HIV antibody response from primarily normal B cells correlated with both a low amount of virus in the blood (viral load) and a low level of immune activation. According to the scientists, more research is needed to determine whether normal B cells lead to a more effective antibody response than abnormal B cells, and whether HIV-infected people who maintain a low viral load and low immune activation generate a better B-cell response than people who have a higher viral load and a higher degree of immune activation.

Finally, the scientists observed that the B-cell response to HIV is unlike the B-cell responses to other pathogens in the same people. For instance, when researchers exposed the volunteers' blood cells to a tetanus probe, they observed a relatively normal B-cell response. This was likely, they say, because the volunteers had been vaccinated for tetanus before they became infected with HIV, had a normal B-cell response then, and maintained the normal response for years. However, the volunteers' B-cell response to influenza was less normal than their response to tetanus, probably because they had been exposed to certain strains of influenza after acquiring HIV, but more normal than their response to HIV.

Taken together, the study findings add to the growing body of evidence indicating that starting HIV treatment early benefits the health of infected individuals, according to the scientists.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Lela Kardava, Susan Moir, Naisha Shah, Wei Wang, Richard Wilson, Clarisa M. Buckner, Brian H. Santich, Leo J.Y. Kim, Emily E. Spurlin, Amy K. Nelson, Adam K. Wheatley, Christopher J. Harvey, Adrian B. McDermott, Kai W. Wucherpfennig, Tae-Wook Chun, John S. Tsang, Yuxing Li, Anthony S. Fauci. Abnormal B cell memory subsets dominate HIV-specific responses in infected individuals. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2014; DOI: 10.1172/JCI74351

Cite This Page:

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Antibody-producing cells in people infected with HIV found." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140603092558.htm>.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2014, June 3). Antibody-producing cells in people infected with HIV found. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140603092558.htm
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Antibody-producing cells in people infected with HIV found." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140603092558.htm (accessed September 16, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

AFP (Sep. 15, 2014) The European Commission met on Monday to coordinate aid that the EU can offer to African countries affected by the Ebola outbreak. Duration: 00:58 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Newsy (Sep. 15, 2014) A new study finds children are prescribed antibiotics twice as often as is necessary. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

AP (Sep. 15, 2014) The FDA is considering whether to ban devices used by the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Canton, Massachusetts, the only place in the country known to use electrical skin shocks as aversive conditioning for aggressive patients. (Sept. 15) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Respiratory Virus Spreads To Northeast, Now In 21 States

Respiratory Virus Spreads To Northeast, Now In 21 States

Newsy (Sep. 14, 2014) The respiratory virus Enterovirus D68, which targets children, has spread from the Midwest to 21 states. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins