Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Opioid overdose prevention programs may reduce deaths

Date:
June 3, 2014
Source:
Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams Array Wilkins
Summary:
Community opioid overdose prevention programs (OOPPs) -— including the use of naloxone for rapid drug reversal -— can improve bystander responses to overdose of heroin and related drugs, according to a review. There is growing interest in OOPPs to fight the rising number of deaths from overdose of opioids. In these programs, kits containing naloxone -- a drug that can rapidly reverse the effects of opioids -- are distributed directly to patients at risk for overdose.

Community opioid overdose prevention programs (OOPPs) -- including the use of naloxone for rapid drug reversal -- can improve bystander responses to overdose of heroin and related drugs, according to a review in the June Journal of Addiction Medicine, the official journal of the American Society of Addiction Medicine.The journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a part of Wolters Kluwer Health.

Related Articles


Based on the available evidence, "Bystanders (mostly opioid users) can and will use naloxone to reverse opioid overdoses when properly trained, and…this training can be done successfully through OOPPs," write Dr. Christine M. Wilder and colleagues of University of Cincinnati School of Medicine. But higher-quality research is needed to determine whether OOPPs can meet the goal of reducing deaths from opioid overdose.

Initial Results from OOPPs -- Are They Working?

There is growing interest in OOPPs to fight the rising number of deaths from overdose of opioids, including heroin and prescription painkillers. In these programs, kits containing naloxone -- the generic name for Narcan, a drug that can rapidly reverse the effects of opioids -- are distributed directly to patients at risk for overdose. Naloxone kits and training are often delivered in conjunction with needle exchange programs.

Dr. Wilder and colleagues identified and analyzed the results of 19 published studies evaluating OOPPs. The training programs included recognition, prevention, and risk factors for overdose; and how to respond to an overdose, including naloxone administration. Naloxone was usually given by injection, but sometimes by nasal administration.

Fourteen studies provided follow-up data on more than 9,000 OOPP participants. Nearly half of patients participating in OOPP programs had experienced an overdose during their lifetime, and about 80 percent had witnessed an overdose.

Eighteen studies provided data on nearly 1,950 naloxone administrations. When naloxone was given in response to an overdose, the person giving it was usually also an opioid user.

Eleven studies reported 100 percent survival; the rest reported survival rates of 83 to 96 percent. Two studies provided data suggesting that OOPPs were associated with community-wide reductions in opioid overdose deaths. The studies also provided information on 12 unsuccessful administrations, in which naloxone did not reverse the overdose for various reasons.

Need for More Research on OOPP Implementation and Effectiveness

Studies suggested that OOPP training increased bystanders' knowledge of overdose prevention and risk factors. Training also increased the use of appropriate overdose strategies -- although many bystanders continued to use inappropriate strategies as well. Training didn't seem to increase bystanders' willingness to call EMS.

Many communities have established or are interested in establishing OOPPs to help stem the rising tide of deaths from opioid overdose. However, there are continued questions about the implementation and effectiveness of these programs. So far, research studies on OOPPs have been limited in number and quality.

An accompanying article discusses the experience of establishing an OOPP at one substance use disorders treatment center. The experience highlights some of the challenges to introducing this new approach -- for example, getting "buy-in" from addiction center professionals and staff.

"OOPP participation is associated with overdose reversals, increased knowledge and ability to respond appropriately in an overdose situation, and the ability of non-medical bystanders to safely administer naloxone," Wilder and coauthors conclude. While naloxone is clearly life-saving in individual cases, more research will be needed to establish whether providing opioid users with overdose training and naloxone kits is an effective way to reduce the number of overdose deaths in the community. The authors emphasize the need for "well-designed studies" to assess the true impact on overdose deaths, how best to integrate OOPPs into current practice, and the benefits of OOPPs at the population level.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams Array Wilkins. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. Christine M. Wilder, Fred Wells Brason, Angela K. Clark, Marc Galanter, Alexander Y. Walley, Erin L. Winstanley. Development and Implementation of an Opioid Overdose Prevention Program Within a Preexisting Substance Use Disorders Treatment Center. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 2014; 8 (3): 164 DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000032
  2. Angela K. Clark, Christine M. Wilder, Erin L. Winstanley. A Systematic Review of Community Opioid Overdose Prevention and Naloxone Distribution Programs. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 2014; 8 (3): 153 DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0000000000000034

Cite This Page:

Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams Array Wilkins. "Opioid overdose prevention programs may reduce deaths." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140603114107.htm>.
Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams Array Wilkins. (2014, June 3). Opioid overdose prevention programs may reduce deaths. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140603114107.htm
Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincott Williams Array Wilkins. "Opioid overdose prevention programs may reduce deaths." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140603114107.htm (accessed February 28, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Mind & Brain News

Saturday, February 28, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

The Best Foods to Battle Stress

The Best Foods to Battle Stress

Buzz60 (Feb. 26, 2015) If you&apos;re dealing with anxiety, there are a few foods that can help. Krystin Goodwin (@krystingoodwin) has the best foods to tame stress. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sleeping Too Much Or Too Little Might Increase Stroke Risk

Sleeping Too Much Or Too Little Might Increase Stroke Risk

Newsy (Feb. 26, 2015) People who sleep more than eight hours per night are 45 percent more likely to have a stroke, according to a University of Cambridge study. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Mayor Says District of Columbia to Go Ahead With Pot Legalization

Mayor Says District of Columbia to Go Ahead With Pot Legalization

Reuters - News Video Online (Feb. 25, 2015) Washington&apos;s mayor says the District of Columbia will move forward with marijuana legalization, despite pushback from Congress. Rough Cut (no reporter narration). Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Marijuana Nowhere Near As Deadly As Alcohol: Study

Marijuana Nowhere Near As Deadly As Alcohol: Study

Newsy (Feb. 25, 2015) A new study says marijuana is about 114 times less deadly than alcohol. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins