Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Framework for monitoring oral cancer developed

Date:
June 10, 2014
Source:
New York University
Summary:
Each year, approximately 22,000 Americans are diagnosed with oral cancer. The five-year survival rate of 40% in the U.S. is one of the lowest of the major cancers, and it has not improved in the past 40 years. "The major risk factors, tobacco and alcohol use, alone cannot explain the changes in incidence, because oral cancer also commonly occurs in patients without a history of tobacco or alcohol exposure," remarked a team whose findings begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence.

Each year, approximately 22,000 Americans are diagnosed with oral cancer. The five-year survival rate of 40% in the U.S. is one of the lowest of the major cancers, and it has not improved in the past 40 years. More people die each year in the U.S. from oral cancer than from melanoma, cervical, or ovarian cancer. Worldwide, the incidence of oral cancer is increasing, particularly among young people and women, with an estimated 350,000 -- 400,000 new cases diagnosed each year.

"The major risk factors, tobacco and alcohol use, alone cannot explain the changes in incidence, because oral cancer also commonly occurs in patients without a history of tobacco or alcohol exposure," said Dr. Brian Schmidt, professor of oral and maxillofacial surgery and director of the Bluestone Center for Clinical Research at the NYU College of Dentistry (NYUCD)

Changes in the microbial community are commonly associated with dental diseases such as periodontal disease, which is most likely a poly-microbial disease characterized by outgrowth of certain pathologic organisms, and chronic periodontitis has been reported to be a risk factor for oral premalignant lesions and cancers.

"We know that other cancers, including gallbladder, colon, lung and prostate, have been associated with particular bacterial infections, so we hypothesized that shifts in the composition of the normal oral cavity microbiome could be promoters or causes of oral cancer," said Dr. Albertson.

Drs. Schmidt and Albertson and their team profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. The team's findings, "Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer," published on-line in the journal PLOS ONE (June 2, 2014), begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence.

In cancer samples from both a discovery (n=5) and a subsequent confirmation cohort (n=10), abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Using differences in abundance of the genera Actinomyces, Rothia, Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, the team was able to separate most cancer samples from pre-cancer and normal samples.

"The oral cavity offers a relatively unique opportunity to screen at risk individuals for (oral) cancer, because the lesions can be seen, and as we found, the shift in the microbiome of the cancer and pre‑cancer lesions compared to anatomically matched clinically normal tissue from the same individual can be detected in non‑invasively collected swab samples." said Dr. Schmidt.

Non‑invasively sampling the microbiome of oral lesions and corresponding normal tissue opens the possibility to not only detect cancer‑associated changes at one time point, but the relative stability of the adult oral microbiome also offers the opportunity to monitor shifts in bacterial communities over time.

"Here we observed changes in the microbiome, which, in future larger studies, may be confirmed as a potential biomarker of oral cancers or pre‑cancers, and may even have utility to discriminate patients with lymph node metastases," notes Dr. Albertson. "In addition, there are other challenges in clinical management of oral cancers that would benefit from better diagnostic tools."

Oral cancer patients are also at risk of second primary cancers and recurrences. The microbiome may provide signatures that can be used as a biomarker for monitoring field changes associated with the high rate of second primary oral cancers and recurrences. The team also notes the possibility of medically modulating the oral microbiome for treatment of oral pre-cancers and damaged fields (field cancerization).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by New York University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Brian L. Schmidt, Justin Kuczynski, Aditi Bhattacharya, Bing Huey, Patricia M. Corby, Erica L. S. Queiroz, Kira Nightingale, A. Ross Kerr, Mark D. Delacure, Ratna Veeramachaneni, Adam B. Olshen, Donna G. Albertson, Muy-Teck Teh. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer. PLoS One, June 2014 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.009874

Cite This Page:

New York University. "Framework for monitoring oral cancer developed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140610152741.htm>.
New York University. (2014, June 10). Framework for monitoring oral cancer developed. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140610152741.htm
New York University. "Framework for monitoring oral cancer developed." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140610152741.htm (accessed September 16, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

President To Send 3,000 Military Personnel To Fight Ebola

President To Send 3,000 Military Personnel To Fight Ebola

Newsy (Sep. 16, 2014) President Obama is expected to send 3,000 troops to West Africa as part of the effort to contain Ebola's spread. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Man Floats for 31 Hours in Gulf Waters

Man Floats for 31 Hours in Gulf Waters

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) A Texas man is lucky to be alive after he and three others floated for more than a day in the Gulf of Mexico when their boat sank during a fishing trip. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ivorians Abandon Monkey Pets in Fear Over Ebola Virus

Ivorians Abandon Monkey Pets in Fear Over Ebola Virus

AFP (Sep. 16, 2014) Since the arrival of Ebola in Ivory Coast, Ivorians have been abandoning their pets, particularly monkeys, in the fear that they may transmit the virus. Duration: 00:47 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Study Links Male-Pattern Baldness To Prostate Cancer

Study Links Male-Pattern Baldness To Prostate Cancer

Newsy (Sep. 16, 2014) New findings suggest men with a certain type of baldness at age 45 are 39 percent more likely to develop aggressive prostate cancer. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

      Technology News



      Save/Print:
      Share:

      Free Subscriptions


      Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

      Get Social & Mobile


      Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

      Have Feedback?


      Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
      Mobile: iPhone Android Web
      Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
      Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
      Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins