Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Role of cohesin in cancer revised by researcher

Date:
June 24, 2014
Source:
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO)
Summary:
The role of cohesin, its regulation, as well as its recently identified function as a potential driver or facilitator for tumors has been explained and revised by an international expert in cohesin. The challenge now is to understand the link between cohesin and the development and evolution of cancer, an area where there is currently little data.

Massive sequencing of cancer genomes brings to light new genes every day that could be involved in the process of tumour formation. A good example of this is cohesin, a ring-shaped protein complex that embraces DNA to control cell division. Just a few months ago, and after several studies in the same direction, the sequencing of thousands of tumour samples identified the STAG2 gene -- whose product forms part of cohesin -- as one of the most frequently mutated genes in several types of cancer such as bladder cancer and melanoma.

The challenge now is to understand the link between cohesin and the development and evolution of cancer, an area where there is currently little data. Ana Losada, the head of the Chromosome Dynamics Group at the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), an international expert in cohesin, summarises in Nature Reviews Cancer the latest research on the role of cohesin, its regulation, as well as its recently identified function as a potential driver or facilitator for tumours.

According to the article, cohesin "prevents premature separation of sister chromatids [those that contain the duplicated genetic material before cell division]"; this facilitates both the equal distribution of the genetic material between each daughter cell as well as DNA repair.

"For a few years now, several studies have added a new role for these complexes in the maintenance of the 3D structure of the genome and gene expression," says Losada. In this case, cohesin intervenes during the interphase of the cell cycle, when the cells are not dividing, the longest stage in the cell cycle of a cell's life.

This novel function, apart from the cell reproduction function, opens up a still-unknown field for the study of oncological diseases, which might help to understand the functional importance of cohesin mutations and their link to cancer.

BLADDER CANCER, A PARADIGMATIC CASE

The review makes a special mention of several bladder cancer studies, in which STAG2 mutations are the most frequent, representing: "up to 30% of mutations in the lower grade tumours and up to 10-15% in the most aggressive ones."

Amongst the studies mentioned is a recent article coordinated by Francisco X. Real and Nϊria Malats at the CNIO. The researchers described how STAG2 mutations did not correlate with alterations in the genetic make-up of tumour cells. From their observations, the researchers concluded that: "the gene takes part in bladder cancer via different mechanisms to the distribution [of genetic material]."

Losada points out that a better understanding of cohesin biology, as well as the generation of new animal and cell models deficient in these proteins could contribute to an improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of patients.

Since her discovery of cohesin in vertebrate organisms at the end of the 1990s, Losada has continued to focus her research into this area of knowledge using different experimental models, such as the African frog Xenopus laevis or the mouse.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Ana Losada. Cohesin in cancer: chromosome segregation and beyond. Nature Reviews Cancer, 2014; 14 (6): 389 DOI: 10.1038/nrc3743

Cite This Page:

Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO). "Role of cohesin in cancer revised by researcher." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140624110720.htm>.
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO). (2014, June 24). Role of cohesin in cancer revised by researcher. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140624110720.htm
Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncologicas (CNIO). "Role of cohesin in cancer revised by researcher." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140624110720.htm (accessed July 31, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

AP (July 31, 2014) — Sarasota County, Florida health officials have issued a warning against eating raw oysters and exposing open wounds to coastal and inland waters after a dangerous bacteria killed one person and made another sick. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 30, 2014) — Obamacare-related costs were said to be behind the profit plunge at Wellpoint and Humana, but Wellpoint sees the new exchanges boosting its earnings for the full year. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Peace Corps Pulls Workers From W. Africa Over Ebola Fears

Peace Corps Pulls Workers From W. Africa Over Ebola Fears

Newsy (July 30, 2014) — The Peace Corps is one of several U.S.-based organizations to pull workers out of West Africa because of the Ebola outbreak. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Weather Kills 2K A Year, But Storms Aren't The Main Offender

Weather Kills 2K A Year, But Storms Aren't The Main Offender

Newsy (July 30, 2014) — Health officials say 2,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. due to weather, but it's excessive heat and cold that claim the most lives. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

    Technology News



      Save/Print:
      Share:  

      Free Subscriptions


      Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

      Get Social & Mobile


      Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

      Have Feedback?


      Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
      Mobile iPhone Android Web
      Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
      Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
      Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins