Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the mineral calcite (calcium carbonate: CaCO3).
Limestones often contain variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or flint, as well as varying amounts of clay, silt and sand as disseminations, nodules, or layers within the rock.
The primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms.
These organisms secrete shells that settle out of the water column and are deposited on ocean floors as pelagic ooze or alternatively is conglomerated in a coral reef.
Secondary calcite may also be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters (groundwater that precipitates the material in caves).
This produces speleothems such as stalagmites and stalactites.
Another form taken by calcite is that of oolites (oolitic limestone) which can be recognised by its granular appearance.
Limestone makes up about 10 percent of the total volume of all sedimentary rocks.