Reference Terms
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Smoulder

Smouldering (or smoldering in American spelling) combustion is a flameless form of combustion, deriving its heat from oxidations occurring on the surface of a solid fuel.

Common examples are the initiation of fires on upholstered furniture by weak heat sources (e.g. a cigarette, a short-circuited wire), and the persistent combustion of biomass behind the flaming front of wildland fires.

Many materials can sustain a smouldering reaction, including coal, tobacco, wood, biomass fuels on the forest surface (duff) and subsurface (peat), cotton clothing and string, and polymeric foams (e.g. upholstery and bedding materials).

Note:   The above text is excerpted from the Wikipedia article "Smoulder", which has been released under the GNU Free Documentation License.
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August 4, 2015

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