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Hydrocarbon breakthrough made using gold catalyst

January 13, 2011
Cardiff University
Researchers are opening up a new way of using hydrocarbon feedstocks to make a range of valuable products.

Researchers from Cardiff University are opening up a new way of using hydrocarbon feedstocks to make a range of valuable products.

Hydrocarbons are an extremely important energy resource but, although widely available from fossil fuels, are extremely difficult to activate and require very high temperatures in current industrial processes.

For the first time, the Cardiff study has shown that the primary carbon-hydrogen bonds in toluene, a hydrocarbon widely used as an industrial material, can be activated selectively at low temperatures.

Professor Graham Hutchings FRS, one of the study's co-authors and Cardiff University's Pro Vice-Chancellor for Research, said: "One of the key challenges facing chemists today is to activate primary carbon-hydrogen bonds in hydrocarbons to make more valuable and reactive molecules. This is crucial for the sustainable exploitation of available industrial feedstocks.

"Our research resulted in unprecedented yields of a single product of over 90%. We achieved this using a gold catalyst, an unexpected result as gold is the most noble of the elements."

This opens up the possibility of using hydrocarbon feedstocks in a new way to form intermediates and final products for use in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and agricultural business sectors.

The research was carried out by a large team at the Cardiff Catalysis Institute, in collaboration with researchers at Lehigh University, Pennsylvania. It was funded by a major research grant won by Cardiff University's School of Chemistry in 2008, when it was selected from hundreds of international bids as part of the Dow Methane Challenge.

The challenge was initiated by the Dow Chemical Company to identify collaborators and approaches in the area of methane conversion to chemicals.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Cardiff University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Lokesh Kesavan, Ramchandra Tiruvalam, Mohd Hasbi Ab Rahim, Mohd Izham Bin Saiman, Dan I. Enache, Robert L. Jenkins, Nikolaos Dimitratos, Jose A. Lopez-Sanchez, Stuart H. Taylor, David W. Knight, Christopher J. Kiely, and Graham J. Hutchings. Solvent-Free Oxidation of Primary Carbon-Hydrogen Bonds in Toluene Using Au-Pd Alloy Nanoparticles. Science, 2011; 331 (6014): 195-199 DOI: 10.1126/science.1198458

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Cardiff University. "Hydrocarbon breakthrough made using gold catalyst." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 January 2011. <>.
Cardiff University. (2011, January 13). Hydrocarbon breakthrough made using gold catalyst. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 29, 2017 from
Cardiff University. "Hydrocarbon breakthrough made using gold catalyst." ScienceDaily. (accessed May 29, 2017).