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Bai jiu: Chinese moonshine has high ethanol and acetaldehyde levels

Date:
December 16, 2016
Source:
Research Society on Alcoholism
Summary:
Bai jiu are distilled spirits made and used throughout rural China for everyday use and special occasions. Distillation of bai jiu is regulated lightly or not at all and nearly every town or village has a distiller. Little is known about the composition of these Chinese spirits, a gap this study seeks to fill given the health risks associated with their high ethanol and high acetaldehyde concentrations.
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Bai jiu (白酒) are distilled spirits made and used throughout rural China for everyday use and special occasions. Distillation of bai jiu is regulated lightly or not at all and nearly every town or village has a distiller. Little is known about the composition of these Chinese spirits, a gap this study seeks to fill given the health risks associated with their high ethanol and high acetaldehyde concentrations.

Researchers purchased 61 samples of Chinese white spirits from small-factory scale producers in central China, and an independent laboratory conducted analyses. Alcohol strength was determined by hydrometer. Gas chromatography was used to determine the concentration of volatile organic compounds: ethanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and higher alcohols. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration of lead, arsenic, and cadmium. Guidelines developed by the Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance (AMPHORA) of the European Commission were used to assess risk.

Results showed that alcohol strength ranged from 35.7 to 61.4 percent, and 58 of the 61 samples exceeded 40 percent. Although the concentration of methanol, ethyl acetate, lead, arsenic, and cadmium were below AMPHORA limits, 40 of the 61 samples had acetaldehyde levels above these limits. The high ethanol concentrations, coupled with a high percentage of samples with elevated acetaldehyde levels, have cumulative long-term health risks, particularly for the substantial proportion of people in China with a genetic trait for impaired acetaldehyde metabolism.


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Journal Reference:

  1. Ian Newman, Ling Qian, Niran Tamrakar, Yonghua Feng, Ganrong Xu. Composition of Unrecorded Distilled Alcohol (bai jiu) Produced in Small Rural Factories in Central China. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2016; DOI: 10.1111/acer.13280

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Research Society on Alcoholism. "Bai jiu: Chinese moonshine has high ethanol and acetaldehyde levels." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 December 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161216192157.htm>.
Research Society on Alcoholism. (2016, December 16). Bai jiu: Chinese moonshine has high ethanol and acetaldehyde levels. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 26, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161216192157.htm
Research Society on Alcoholism. "Bai jiu: Chinese moonshine has high ethanol and acetaldehyde levels." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161216192157.htm (accessed May 26, 2017).

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