Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Overproduction Of Glutamate Can Lead To Brain Damage During Heart Surgery

Date:
October 14, 1997
Source:
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Summary:
Cooling the body for heart surgery causes an overproduction of the neurotransmitter glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, and can leave the nervous system vulnerable to damage from the start of the cooling process until up to eight hours after recovery, a Johns Hopkins animal study suggests.

Cooling the body for heart surgery causes an overproduction of the neurotransmitter glutamate, an excitatory amino acid, and can leave the nervous system vulnerable to damage from the start of the cooling process until up to eight hours after recovery, a Johns Hopkins animal study suggests. This contradicts previous theories that brain damage occurred only during the initial recovery period.

Related Articles


Results of the study, supported by the National Institutes of Health and the Nina Braunwald Research Fellowship from the Thoracic Surgery Foundation for Research and Education, will be presented Oct. 14 at the American College of Surgeons' annual meeting in Chicago.

During the cooling process, called hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA), the body temperature is lowered to reduce the need for oxygen, the heart is stopped and a heart-lung bypass machine takes over circulation in an effort to prevent brain damage. Prolonged HCA, however, may increase the risk of brain damage, leading to problems in learning, memory and involuntary movements.

The researchers measured brain levels of the potentially toxic amino acids glutamate, glycine and citrulline (a marker of nitric oxide) in a group of dogs during closed-chest cardiopulmonary bypass and two hours of HCA. Significant increases in glutamate were observed throughout the cooling process, recovery period and up to eight hours post-recovery. Glutamate overproduction led to increases in glycine and citrulline, which were observed during recovery and two to eight hours post-recovery.

"These findings suggest that pharmacologic strategies to protect the brain from injury and cell death during HCA will require targeting the excitatory amino acid pathway throughout the cooling process," says Charles J. Lowenstein, M.D., assistant professor of medicine at Hopkins and an author of the paper.

The study's other authors were lead author Elaine E. Tseng, M.D.; Malcolm V. Brock, M.D.; Christopher C. Kwon, M.S.; Jorge D. Salazar, M.D.; John R. Doty, M.D.; Michael V. Johnston, M.D.; and William A. Baumgartner, M.D.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "Overproduction Of Glutamate Can Lead To Brain Damage During Heart Surgery." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 October 1997. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/10/971014133419.htm>.
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. (1997, October 14). Overproduction Of Glutamate Can Lead To Brain Damage During Heart Surgery. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/10/971014133419.htm
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "Overproduction Of Glutamate Can Lead To Brain Damage During Heart Surgery." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/10/971014133419.htm (accessed February 28, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, February 28, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Could a $34 Smartphone Device Improve HIV Diagnosis in Africa?

Could a $34 Smartphone Device Improve HIV Diagnosis in Africa?

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Feb. 27, 2015) A dongle that plugs into a Smartphone mimics a lab-based blood test for HIV and syphilis and can detect the diseases in 15 minutes, say researchers. Tara Cleary reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor Says Head Transplants Possible Within Two Years

Doctor Says Head Transplants Possible Within Two Years

Buzz60 (Feb. 27, 2015) An Italian doctor is saying he could stick someone&apos;s head onto someone else&apos;s body. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) reports. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Your Dentist Could Help Screen You For Diabetes

How Your Dentist Could Help Screen You For Diabetes

Newsy (Feb. 27, 2015) A new study from researchers at New York University suggests dentists could soon use blood samples taken from patients&apos; mouths to test for diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Best Tips to Makeover Your Health

The Best Tips to Makeover Your Health

Buzz60 (Feb. 27, 2015) If you&apos;re looking to boost your health this season, there are a few quick and easy steps to prompt you for success. Krystin Goodwin (@Krystingoodwin) has the best tips to give your health a makeover this spring! Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins