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Protein biosynthesis

Protein biosynthesis (Synthesis) is the process in which cells build proteins.

The term is sometimes used to refer only to protein translation but more often it refers to a multi-step process, beginning with amino acid synthesis and transcription which are then used for translation.

Protein biosynthesis, although very similar, differs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

The events following biosynthesis include post-translational modification and protein folding.

During and after synthesis, polypeptide chains often fold to assume, so called, native secondary and tertiary structures.

This is known as protein folding.

Amino acids are the monomers which are polymerized to produce proteins.

Amino acid synthesis is the set of biochemical processes (metabolic pathways) which build the amino acids from carbon sources like glucose.

Not all amino acids may be synthesised by every organism, for example adult humans have to obtain 8 of the 20 amino acids from their diet.

The amino acids are then loaded onto tRNA molecules for use in the process of translation.

Note:   The above text is excerpted from the Wikipedia article "Protein biosynthesis", which has been released under the GNU Free Documentation License.
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