Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Quality Control System Ensures Genetic Instructions Are Ready To Go

Date:
December 16, 1998
Source:
University Of Wisconsin-Madison
Summary:
Cells pay even closer attention to quality control of genetic information than scientists previously thought, according to new findings by University of Wisconsin Medical School researchers. Before sending genetic molecules out of the nucleus to sites where they will ultimately function, cells check to see that they are complete and ready to go.

MADISON, Wis. -- Cells pay even closer attention to quality control of genetic information than scientists previously thought, according to new findings by University of Wisconsin Medical School researchers. Before sending genetic molecules out of the nucleus to sites where they will ultimately function, cells check to see that they are complete and ready to go.

"With this finding, we can start to think of the nuclear envelope as more than a shell that keeps the components of the nucleus together," said UW Medical School Professor of Biomolecular Chemistry Dr. James Dahlberg. "We now know it's also a barrier that makes sure genetic material isn't exported prematurely from the nucleus, which could be disastrous for the cell."

Dahlberg, a member of the National Academy of Sciences, and Elsebet Lund, a senior scientist in the department of biomolecular chemistry, report their findings in the Dec. 11 issue of the journal Science.

Proteins, essential for all life processes, are made up of building blocks of amino acids arranged in specific sequences determined by genetic instructions. The machinery that builds the proteins involves a special molecule called transfer RNA (tRNA), which delivers the amino acids to protein-assembly factories known as ribosomes.

After several years of studying mechanisms by which molecules are transported in and out of the nucleus, Dahlberg and Lund recently asked how cells determine exactly when tRNA is able to function. In their experiments, they showed that each tRNA must be able to attach its amino acid before it is exported from the nucleus.

"Like a last-minute quality-control check on the loading dock, this system may be the way the cell says, 'Yes, you're ready to be sent out to the ribosome,'" he said.

The quality-control process, known as proofreading, works in many areas of biology, but was never known to occur in tRNA export until the UW experiments.

In their studies, the researchers first made the unexpected discovery that amino acids can attach to tRNA in the nucleus, not just outside it in the cytoplasm. They then showed that amino acid attachment is required for efficient delivery of the tRNA out of the nucleus.

"This told us the cell really does monitor whether the tRNA can function before it is released into the cytoplasm," he said.

Dahlberg said it behooves cells to ensure tRNA molecules don't leave the nucleus before they're fully matured with amino acids attached. He noted that once they're out, there's no way back for further maturation.

"Immature tRNA can cause a big mess in protein assembly," he said.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University Of Wisconsin-Madison. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

University Of Wisconsin-Madison. "Quality Control System Ensures Genetic Instructions Are Ready To Go." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 December 1998. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/12/981216075644.htm>.
University Of Wisconsin-Madison. (1998, December 16). Quality Control System Ensures Genetic Instructions Are Ready To Go. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/12/981216075644.htm
University Of Wisconsin-Madison. "Quality Control System Ensures Genetic Instructions Are Ready To Go." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1998/12/981216075644.htm (accessed August 21, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Possible Ebola Patient in Isolation at California Hospital

Possible Ebola Patient in Isolation at California Hospital

Reuters - US Online Video (Aug. 20, 2014) — A patient who may have been exposed to the Ebola virus is in isolation at the Kaiser Permanente South Sacramento Medical Center. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: World's Oldest Man Lives in Japan

Raw: World's Oldest Man Lives in Japan

AP (Aug. 20, 2014) — A 111-year-old Japanese was certified as the world's oldest man by Guinness World Records on Wednesday. Sakari Momoi, a native of Fukushima in northern Japan, was given a certificate at a hospital in Tokyo. (Aug. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Do More Wedding Guests Make A Happier Marriage?

Do More Wedding Guests Make A Happier Marriage?

Newsy (Aug. 20, 2014) — A new study found couples who had at least 150 guests at their weddings were more likely to report being happy in their marriages. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Freetown a City on Edge

Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Freetown a City on Edge

AFP (Aug. 19, 2014) — Residents of Sierra Leone's capital voice their fears as the Ebola virus sweeps through west Africa. Duration: 00:56 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins