Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Biodiversity Yields Dividends, Finds Pan-European Research

Date:
November 10, 1999
Source:
Max Planck Society
Summary:
The loss of biodiversity in European grasslands will make them less productive, reducing the amount of energy available to the rest of the food chain and threatening the overall health of the ecosystem, say results from one of the world's most extensive ecological studies.

The loss of biodiversity in European grasslands will make them less productive, reducing the amount of energy available to the rest of the food chain and threatening the overall health of the ecosystem, say results from one of the world's most extensive ecological studies (Science 5 November 1999).

BIODEPTH (Biodiversity and Ecological Processes in Terrestrial Herbaceous Ecosystems) is an EU-funded programme as part of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Initiative (TERI). A team of 34 scientists from 8 European countries participated in this study, establishing a network of European field sites in natural and semi-natural plant communities along a North-West to South-East (Ireland to Greece) and a North-East to South-West (Sweden to Portugal) gradient through Europe. The German measuring site near Bayreuth was co-ordinated by Prof. Dr. E.-D. Schulze, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, and his team from the Max Planck Institute and the University of Bayreuth.

Within BIODEPTH - a multinational collaboration to perform the same standardised experiment at a continental scale - experimental grassland communities were established that mimicked the gradual loss of biodiversity seen throughout Europe by creating replicate plant communities with reduced species richness. On each site, effects of reduced biodiversity on key ecosystem processes and structural characteristics were determined and quantified. The German site at Bayreuth focused on effects on productivity, nutrient cycling, soil nitrate leaching, decomposition, canopy architecture, competition and population biology of species involved.

The experimental manipulation of plant species diversity significantly changed the dynamics of those ecosystem processes. It affects ecosystem functioning and population dynamics. The productivity decreased linearly with decreasing species richness – plant communities grow better in species-rich teams. Harvest yields were found to increase when there was a range of plants with different characteristics growing together. Similar patterns occurred in a broad range of European grasslands, making the findings applicable on a continental scale. Concentrations of soil water nitrate were higher than the European official limit for drinking water under situations of low diversity. Functional characteristics of plant species - especially the ability to fix nitrogen - play a major role for several ecosystem processes and are at least as important as their number per se. Ressource-use complementarity in more diverse systems could explain the higher productivity and lower nitrogen losses.

These findings represent the latest development in the scientific debate about how the loss of biodiversity affects the way in which ecosystems function - recently a major focus of ecological research. The BIODEPTH evidence provides a vital contribution to the debate by demonstrating that both numbers of species and the types of plant play important roles in ecosystems.

The authors claim that their experimental evidence should send a clear message to European policy makers: that preserving and restoring biodiversity is beneficial to maintaining grassland productivity - particularly if reductions in fertiliser and pesticide usage are to be achieved. About half of Europe’s farmland is grassland (60 million hectares), used as grazing pastures, hay meadows, and as set-aside land. The loss of species is playing a key role in the gradual erosion of the quality of our environment. "In addition to moral and aesthetic reasons to conserve biodiversity, our results now provide strong scientific reasons, too," says Dr Andy Hector of Imperial College, lead author of the group’s report in Science. "These results provide the type of general ecological principles needed for European conservation and agricultural policies". This project signals the beginning of a new era by demonstrating the power of "big ecology" to underpin environmental policymaking.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Max Planck Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Max Planck Society. "Biodiversity Yields Dividends, Finds Pan-European Research." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 November 1999. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/11/991110061436.htm>.
Max Planck Society. (1999, November 10). Biodiversity Yields Dividends, Finds Pan-European Research. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/11/991110061436.htm
Max Planck Society. "Biodiversity Yields Dividends, Finds Pan-European Research." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/11/991110061436.htm (accessed September 20, 2014).

Share This



More Earth & Climate News

Saturday, September 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Climate Change Rally Held in India Ahead of UN Summit

Climate Change Rally Held in India Ahead of UN Summit

AFP (Sep. 20, 2014) Some 125 world leaders are expected to commit to action on climate change at a UN summit Tuesday called to inject momentum in struggling efforts to tackle global warming. Duration: 00:41 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
New Music With Recycled Instruments at Colombia Fest

New Music With Recycled Instruments at Colombia Fest

AFP (Sep. 19, 2014) Jars, bottles, caps and even a pizza box, recovered from the trash, were the elements used by four musical groups at the "RSFEST2014 Sonorities Recycling Festival", in Colombian city of Cali. Duration: 00:49 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Wildfires in CA Burn Forest Asunder

Raw: Wildfires in CA Burn Forest Asunder

AP (Sep. 18, 2014) An out-of-control Northern California wildfire has nearly 2,800 people from their homes as it continues to grow, authorities said Thursday. Authorities said a man has been arrested on suspicion of arson for starting the fire on Saturday. (Sept. 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Elephant Undergoes Surgery in Tbilisi Zoo

Raw: Elephant Undergoes Surgery in Tbilisi Zoo

AP (Sep. 18, 2014) Grand the elephant has successfully undergone surgery to remove a portion of infected tusk at Tbilisi Zoo in Georgia. British veterinary surgeons used an electric drill to extract the infected piece. (Sept. 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins