Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Two Thirds Of Human DNA Script Deciphered By Human Genome Project; Public Consortium To Complete "Working Draft" In June

Date:
April 3, 2000
Source:
NIH-National Human Genome Research Institute
Summary:
The Human Genome Project international consortium announced today that two billion of the three billion “letters” that constitute the genetic instruction book of humans have been deciphered and deposited into GenBank, the public database of DNA sequence operated by the National Institutes of Health. The two billionth “letter,” or base pair, was deposited earlier this month by the Wellcome Trust’s Sanger Centre in Great Britain. The “letter” was a “T,” the abbreviation for thymine, one of the four chemicals or bases that make up DNA.

March 29, 2000 -- The Human Genome Project international consortium announced today that two billion of the three billion “letters” that constitute the genetic instruction book of humans have been deciphered and deposited into GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/seq). GenBank, the public database of DNA sequence operated by the National Institutes of Health, is accessible freely and without restrictions to all scientists in industry and academia.

The two billionth “letter,” or base pair, was deposited earlier this month by the Wellcome Trust’s Sanger Centre in Great Britain. The “letter” was a “T,” the abbreviation for thymine, one of the four chemicals or bases that make up DNA. The 2,178,076,000 unique base pairs now in GenBank have been mapped to their locations on the 24 human chromosomes.

The Human Genome Project is on track to complete the “working draft,” which will include 90 percent of the human DNA sequence, with an accuracy of 99.9 percent, in June. The Human Genome Project worldwide will invest an estimated $250 million in producing the working draft.

The finished, stand-the-test of time version of the human DNA sequence will be ready on or before 2003. Just four months ago, the Human Genome Project reached the one-billionth base pair milestone.

“It’s good news that we’re moving so fast but it’s even better news that researchers throughout the world are using this data now to investigate the genetic underpinnings of health and diseases ranging from Alzheimer’s to diabetes,” said Dr. Francis Collins, director of NIH’s National Human Genome Research Institute, in a speech today at the BIO 2000 annual international biotechnology conference in Boston.

Reaching the two billion base pair milestone is “a splendid achievement which will help doctors around the world in their quest to cure disease and advance knowledge,” said Dr. Michael Morgan, chief executive of Wellcome Trust Genome Campus in Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom, which hosts the UK contribution to the Human Genome Project.

“We are pleased to be contributing to the creation of the scientific infrastructure that will enable the next stage of the biotechnology revolution,” said Dr. Ari Patrinos, director of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research, which sponsors the Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, CA. Sequencing, which is determining the exact order of DNA’s four chemical bases, commonly abbreviated A, T, C and G, has been expedited in the Human Genome Project by technological advances in deciphering DNA and the coalition’s collaborative nature, which has resulted in about 1,000 scientists worldwide working together effectively.

Today the Human Genome Project assembles 12,000 bases every minute. Twenty years ago, sequencing that many bases would have required one year or more. Three years ago, when pilot projects to evaluate feasibility of large-scale sequencing were initiated by the Human Genome Project, deciphering 12,000 bases required 20 minutes.

Scientists throughout the world already are using the human sequence data in GenBank for basic research and disease related studies. Recently the genes responsible for hereditary deafness and cerebral cavernous malformations, an often-fatal vascular disease causing seizures and brain hemorrhages, were detected with data from GenBank.

Scientists are rapidly annotating the human DNA sequence in GenBank with information about the location of specific genes and the genetic variants (called Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) that can provide clues to various health disorders.

Almost 15 billion raw base pairs were sequenced to reach the two billion milestone. Human Genome Project scientists decipher each area of a chromosome at least four to five times to insure that the data deposited into GenBank is accurate. The “depth of coverage,” as this repeat sequencing is called, also helps the scientists assemble the long stretches of the “A,” “T,” “C,” and “G” bases. The finished version of the human DNA sequence that the Human Genome Project will complete in 2003 will have a greater depth of coverage, with at least eight to nine fold coverage for each chromosome region.

The international Human Genome Project consortium includes scientists at 16 institutions in France, Germany, Japan, China, Great Britain and the U.S. The five institutions that generate the most sequence are: Baylor College of Medicine, Houston; Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis; Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, Mass.; Joint Genome Institute in CA; and the Sanger Centre in Great Britain. NHGRI funds the sequencing centers at Baylor, Washington University and Whitehead.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH-National Human Genome Research Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

NIH-National Human Genome Research Institute. "Two Thirds Of Human DNA Script Deciphered By Human Genome Project; Public Consortium To Complete "Working Draft" In June." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 April 2000. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/04/000403010333.htm>.
NIH-National Human Genome Research Institute. (2000, April 3). Two Thirds Of Human DNA Script Deciphered By Human Genome Project; Public Consortium To Complete "Working Draft" In June. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/04/000403010333.htm
NIH-National Human Genome Research Institute. "Two Thirds Of Human DNA Script Deciphered By Human Genome Project; Public Consortium To Complete "Working Draft" In June." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2000/04/000403010333.htm (accessed August 1, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Friday, August 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

House Republicans Vote to Sue Obama Over Healthcare Law

House Republicans Vote to Sue Obama Over Healthcare Law

Reuters - US Online Video (July 31, 2014) The Republican-led House of Representatives votes to sue President Obama, accusing him of overstepping his executive authority in making changes to the Affordable Care Act. Mana Rabiee reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite Health Questions, E-Cigs Are Beneficial: Study

Despite Health Questions, E-Cigs Are Beneficial: Study

Newsy (July 31, 2014) Citing 81 previous studies, new research out of London suggests the benefits of smoking e-cigarettes instead of regular ones outweighs the risks. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

AP (July 31, 2014) Sarasota County, Florida health officials have issued a warning against eating raw oysters and exposing open wounds to coastal and inland waters after a dangerous bacteria killed one person and made another sick. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 30, 2014) Obamacare-related costs were said to be behind the profit plunge at Wellpoint and Humana, but Wellpoint sees the new exchanges boosting its earnings for the full year. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins