Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Primate Bushmeat : Populations Exposed To Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses

Date:
April 3, 2002
Source:
Institut De Recherche Pour Le Développement
Summary:
Serological analyses on nearly 800 monkeys hunted in rainforests of Cameroon, sold on the markets as bushmeat or kept as pets showed a high rate of cross-reactivity with HIV antigens, more than 16%. SIV infection was identified in 13 of the 16 primate species examined, four of them previously not known to harbor SIV. Furthermore, five new SIV lineages have been isolated. These data document for the first time that humans are exposed to a plethora of genetically highly divergent viruses through hunting and handling bushmeat.

Serological analyses on nearly 800 monkeys hunted in rainforests of Cameroon, sold on the markets as bushmeat or kept as pets showed a high rate of cross-reactivity with HIV antigens, more than 16%. SIV infection was identified in 13 of the 16 primate species examined, four of them previously not known to harbor SIV. Furthermore, five new SIV lineages have been isolated. These data document for the first time that humans are exposed to a plethora of genetically highly divergent viruses through hunting and handling bushmeat.

Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are of zoonotic origin , and the closest simian relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been found in the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys) respectively. Given that humans come in frequent contact with primates in many parts of subsaharan Africa, particularly through hunting and handling primate bushmeat the possibility of additional zoonotic transfers of primate lentiviruses from species other than chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys has to be considered. This risk can only be assessed by studying the prevalence, diversity and geographic distribution of SIVinfections in wild primate populations in this part of the world.

A team of researchers from IRD and projet PRESICA working with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry from Cameroon, realized the first comprehensive survey on siv prevalences in wild caught primates from cameroon, and provide a first approximation of the magnitude and variety of sivs to which humans are exposed to through contact with non-human primates.

Nearly 800 monkeys , hunted in the rainforests, and subsequently sold for their meat on markets in Yaoundé, surrounding villages and logging concessions, or kept as pets were tested for hiv cross-reactive antibodies. Strong serological reaction, indicating infection by an SIV, was found in 16.6% of the monkeys sampled. Out of 16 species, 13 were infected. Four of these had previously not been identified as carriers of the virus. Moreover, molecular analyses showed a great diversity among the viruses present in these monkeys, and five new SIV lineages were isolated and identified. These results bring to 30 the number of monkey species liable to SIV infection and provide the first evidence that SIV is widespread and extremely diverse among wild primates in Cameroon.

This study suggests a high degree of human exposure to SIV through hunting and handling monkeys for their meat, which is a common practice in Sub-Saharan Africa. Transmission of SIVs is most likely through contact with infected blood or other secretions and possibly bites from pet animals. Bushmeat hunting is ongoing for hundreds of years, but the bushmeat trade has increased in the last decades. Commercial logging has led to road constructions, human migration, and the development of social and economic networks into remote forest areas. These socioeconomic changes, combined with our estimates of siv prevalence and genetic complexity in wild living primates, would suggest that the magnitude of human exposure to siv has increased, as have the social and environmental conditions that would be expected to support the emergence of new zoonotic infections.

Studies have shown that several types of SIV could replicate in human lymphocytes, thus suggesting that a potential for human contamination exists, or even for an HIV-3 to appear. Recombination between newly introduced SIVs and circulating HIVs poses still another human risk to novel zoonoses, contributing to diversification of the already extensive range of AIDS viruses which are currently circulating among humans in Africa. There is at present, no evidence of cross-species transmission of these newly identified viral strains to humans, but to determine whether additional zoonotic transmissions of SIVs have already occurred, virus type- and/or lineage-specific immuno and PCR assays will have to be developed. Such work should receive high priority given the extent of human exposure to different SIV lineages as a result of the expanding bushmeat trade documented here, and the impact already evident from two major human zoonoses (HIV-1 and HIV-2). An information campaign has already been launched to warn people of the potential dangers of capturing primates and handling bushmeat.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Institut De Recherche Pour Le Développement. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Institut De Recherche Pour Le Développement. "Primate Bushmeat : Populations Exposed To Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 April 2002. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020403025234.htm>.
Institut De Recherche Pour Le Développement. (2002, April 3). Primate Bushmeat : Populations Exposed To Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020403025234.htm
Institut De Recherche Pour Le Développement. "Primate Bushmeat : Populations Exposed To Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/04/020403025234.htm (accessed August 20, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Freetown a City on Edge

Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Freetown a City on Edge

AFP (Aug. 19, 2014) — Residents of Sierra Leone's capital voice their fears as the Ebola virus sweeps through west Africa. Duration: 00:56 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
101-Year-Old Working Man Has All The Advice You Need

101-Year-Old Working Man Has All The Advice You Need

Newsy (Aug. 19, 2014) — Herman Goldman has worked at the same lighting store for almost 75 years. Find out his secrets to a happy, productive life. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Researcher Testing on-Field Concussion Scanners

Researcher Testing on-Field Concussion Scanners

AP (Aug. 19, 2014) — Four Texas high school football programs are trying out an experimental system designed to diagnose concussions on the field. The technology is in response to growing concern over head trauma in America's most watched sport. (Aug. 19) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
American Ebola Patient Apparently Improving, Outbreak Is Not

American Ebola Patient Apparently Improving, Outbreak Is Not

Newsy (Aug. 19, 2014) — Nancy Writebol, an American missionary who contracted Ebola, is apparently getting better, according to her husband. The outbreak, however, is not. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins