Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cellular Pathway Includes A "Clock" That Steers Gene Activity; Understanding The Timed Messages Within Cells Could Lead To New Medical Treatments

Date:
November 8, 2002
Source:
Johns Hopkins University
Summary:
Researchers from The Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have discovered a biochemical "clock" that appears to play a crucial role in the way information is sent from the surface of a cell to its nucleus. These messages can cause the cell to thrive or commit suicide, and manipulating them could lead to new treatments for cancer and other diseases, the researchers say.

Researchers from The Johns Hopkins University and other institutions have discovered a biochemical "clock" that appears to play a crucial role in the way information is sent from the surface of a cell to its nucleus. These messages can cause the cell to thrive or commit suicide, and manipulating them could lead to new treatments for cancer and other diseases, the researchers say.

The findings, based on lab experiments conducted at Cal Tech and computer models developed at Johns Hopkins, are reported in the Nov. 8 issue of the journal "Science."

Scientists have known that living cells send messages from their surfaces to their nuclei by setting off a chain of chemical reactions that pass the information along like signals traveling over a telephone wire. Such reaction chains are called signaling pathways. But while studying one such reaction chain called the NF-kappaB pathway within mouse cells, the university researchers learned that the signal transmission process is even more complicated.

"We found that if the pathway was activated for a short time, a single pulse of activity was delivered to the nucleus, like a single tick of a clock, activating a set of genes," said Andre Levchenko, assistant professor in the Department of Biomedical Engineering at Johns Hopkins. "But longer activation could produce more pulses and induce a larger gene set. We believe that the timing between pulses is critical. If too much or too little time elapsed, the genetic machinery would not respond properly."

Levchenko, a lead author on the "Science" paper, and his colleagues concluded that the signaling pathway inside a cell was serving as much more than a simple wire. "It was not just carrying the information, it was processing it," he said. "The pathway was operating like a clock with a pendulum, delivering the signal at particular intervals of time in a way that could resonate with the behavior of the genes in the nucleus."

When information moves through a cell pathway to genes in the nucleus, it prompts the genes to send out their own instructions, directing the cell to assemble proteins to carry out various tasks. By developing a better understanding of the way information travels along a pathway, Levchenko said, researchers may be able to create drugs that disrupt or change this line of communication, and in turn affect overall functioning within the cell. For example, a drug designed to shut down the NF-kappaB pathway might cause a cancer cell to commit suicide through a biological process called apoptosis. "We know that cancer cells use this pathway," he said. "If we can find a smart way to cut this 'wire,' it will be much easier to kill the cancer cells."

Levchenko and his colleagues made their discovery by first developing a computer model showing how they believed the pathway operates. Then they verified their results by studying live cells in the lab. Finally, they used the validated model to guide further experiments. Although mouse cells called fibroblasts were used, Levchenko said the findings should also hold true for human fibroblasts and other cell types.

Because the computer model has been validated, it could be used to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals that might affect the cell pathway, said Levchenko, who is a part of a computational biology research team based at the Whitaker Biomedical Engineering Institute at Johns Hopkins. He said drug developers could use the computer model to quickly test how various compounds may affect the cell behavior before launching more time-consuming lab tests with live cells. "This has given us a very good tool to predict things that may happen when the pathway properties are altered, reducing the need to engage in exhaustive animal tests," Levchenko said.

###The other lead author of the Science paper was Alexander Hoffman, who engaged in the research as a postdoctoral scholar at Cal Tech and now is an assistant professor of biology at the University of California, San Diego. The co-authors were Martin L. Scott, who conducted research at MIT and who now is employed by Biogen Inc.; and David Baltimore, president of Cal Tech.

Related Links:

Andre Levchenko's Web page: http://www.bme.jhu.edu/~alev

Johns Hopkins Department of Biomedical Engineering: http://www.bme.jhu.edu


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins University. "Cellular Pathway Includes A "Clock" That Steers Gene Activity; Understanding The Timed Messages Within Cells Could Lead To New Medical Treatments." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 November 2002. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/11/021108072556.htm>.
Johns Hopkins University. (2002, November 8). Cellular Pathway Includes A "Clock" That Steers Gene Activity; Understanding The Timed Messages Within Cells Could Lead To New Medical Treatments. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/11/021108072556.htm
Johns Hopkins University. "Cellular Pathway Includes A "Clock" That Steers Gene Activity; Understanding The Timed Messages Within Cells Could Lead To New Medical Treatments." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/11/021108072556.htm (accessed August 23, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, August 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Drug Used To Treat 'Ebola's Cousin' Shows Promise

Drug Used To Treat 'Ebola's Cousin' Shows Promise

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) An experimental drug used to treat Marburg virus in rhesus monkeys could give new insight into a similar treatment for Ebola. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Two US Ebola Patients Leave Hospital Free of the Disease

Two US Ebola Patients Leave Hospital Free of the Disease

AFP (Aug. 21, 2014) Two American missionaries who were sickened with Ebola while working in Liberia and were treated with an experimental drug are doing better and have left the hospital, doctors say on August 21, 2014. Duration: 01:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Cadavers, a Teen, and a Medical School Dream

Cadavers, a Teen, and a Medical School Dream

AP (Aug. 21, 2014) Contains graphic content. He's only 17. But Johntrell Bowles has wanted to be a doctor from a young age, despite the odds against him. He was recently the youngest participant in a cadaver program at the Indiana University NW medical school. (Aug. 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
American Ebola Patients Released: What Cured Them?

American Ebola Patients Released: What Cured Them?

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) It's unclear whether the American Ebola patients' recoveries can be attributed to an experimental drug or early detection and good medical care. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins