Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Mouse Study Gives New View Of Anthrax Toxin

Date:
September 4, 2003
Source:
NIH/National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases
Summary:
A large-scale study of anthrax in mice has yielded new information about immune system response to anthrax bacteria, according to scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health. The discovery that toxins released by the bacteria do not behave as previously believed should redirect approaches to anthrax drug design.

A large-scale study of anthrax in mice has yielded new information about immune system response to anthrax bacteria, according to scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), one of the National Institutes of Health. The discovery that toxins released by the bacteria do not behave as previously believed should redirect approaches to anthrax drug design, notes NIAID Senior Investigator Stephen Leppla, Ph.D., whose research is published in today's issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

In the new study, Dr. Leppla and his colleagues injected hundreds of inbred mice with anthrax lethal toxin (LT), and then took precisely timed measurements to determine how various organs and immune system processes responded. For example, they measured levels of chemicals called cytokines, which are released by immune system cells after a bacterial invasion. Dr. Leppla and his colleagues found no evidence of a persistent increase in cytokines, or of a link between cytokine increase and anthrax LT effects, contradicting earlier beliefs.

The evidence suggests that current efforts to design cytokine-suppressing drugs to treat lethal toxin-mediated events in late stages of anthrax may be misguided. "Finding effective therapies for diseases such as inhalational anthrax depends on our ability to connect basic research with clinicians' needs. This research is a perfect example of such translational research," says NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.

"Science has had a good understanding of anthrax toxins at molecular and subcellular levels," says Dr. Leppla. "What has been lacking is a picture of the much more complex effects of toxins on tissues and animal models. Ours is one of the first comprehensive studies to critically examine what is actually happening at these higher levels of complexity."

In a natural infection, inhalational anthrax begins after anthrax bacteria spores enter the body, germinate and release toxins. Scientists can create artificial infection by injecting animals with anthrax LT. The accumulation of toxins precipitates events that lead to death.

For more than a decade, scientists based their understanding of LT actions on the results of a few studies that employed a limited number of mice. Because of the high cost of doing anthrax toxin research and the small number of anthrax researchers, theories about LT action went largely unquestioned.

"We still do not know how LT brings about the hypoxia and shock-like death we see in mice," says the paper's first author, Mahtab Moayeri, Ph.D. The next important step, she adds, will be to identify the cell targets of LT and determine precisely how it initiates the chain of events leading to death.

Researchers at the National Cancer Institute also contributed to this research.

NIAID is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the Department of Health and Human Services. NIAID supports basic and applied research to prevent, diagnose, and treat infectious and immune-mediated illnesses, including HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, illness from potential agents of bioterrorism, tuberculosis, malaria, autoimmune disorders, asthma and allergies.

Reference: M Moayeri et al. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF- independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 112:670-82 (2003) DOI: 10.1172/JCI 200317991.

Press releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID Web site at http://www.niaid.nih.gov.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

NIH/National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases. "Mouse Study Gives New View Of Anthrax Toxin." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 September 2003. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/09/030904080012.htm>.
NIH/National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases. (2003, September 4). Mouse Study Gives New View Of Anthrax Toxin. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/09/030904080012.htm
NIH/National Institute Of Allergy And Infectious Diseases. "Mouse Study Gives New View Of Anthrax Toxin." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/09/030904080012.htm (accessed April 18, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, April 18, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Scientists Create Stem Cells From Adult Skin Cells

Scientists Create Stem Cells From Adult Skin Cells

Newsy (Apr. 17, 2014) The breakthrough could mean a cure for some serious diseases and even the possibility of human cloning, but it's all still a way off. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: 8 Million Healthcare Signups

Obama: 8 Million Healthcare Signups

AP (Apr. 17, 2014) President Barack Obama gave a briefing Thursday announcing 8 million people have signed up under the Affordable Care Act. He blasted continued Republican efforts to repeal the law. (April 17) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Is Apathy A Sign Of A Shrinking Brain?

Is Apathy A Sign Of A Shrinking Brain?

Newsy (Apr. 17, 2014) A recent study links apathetic feelings to a smaller brain. Researchers say the results indicate a need for apathy screening for at-risk seniors. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Could Even Casual Marijuana Use Alter Your Brain?

Could Even Casual Marijuana Use Alter Your Brain?

Newsy (Apr. 16, 2014) A new study conducted by researchers at Northwestern and Harvard suggests even casual marijuana use can alter your brain. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins