Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Gains In The Fight Against Acid Aspiration Lung Injury

Date:
May 4, 2006
Source:
American Journal of Pathology
Summary:
Doctors are gaining new leverage in the fight against lung injury caused by acid reflux. The paper by Bonnans et al., "Lipoxin A4 regulates bronchial epithelial cell responses to acid injury," appears in the April issue of The American Journal of Pathology and is accompanied by a commentary.

Doctors are gaining new leverage in the fight against lung injury caused by acid reflux. The paper by Bonnans et al., "Lipoxin A4 regulates bronchial epithelial cell responses to acid injury," appears in the April issue of The American Journal of Pathology and is accompanied by a commentary.

The most familiar symptoms of acid reflux include heartburn and acid regurgitation, but in some patients, acid reflux harms more than the gastrointestinal tract -- it also injures the respiratory tract. Acid aspiration into the lungs damages the epithelial barrier and initiates acute inflammation, resulting in asthma exacerbation, chronic cough, and in the most severe cases, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a life-threatening condition. Current management involves supportive therapies: airway maintenance, supplemental oxygen, and fluid therapy.

Because treatment of acid-induced lung injury is lacking, investigators are examining how the body heals itself from such insults in the hopes of harnessing the same mechanisms for improved medical therapies. Recently, the cellular inflammatory regulators COX-2 and LXA4 have been identified in the resolution of acid-induced lung injury in a mouse model. To determine further how COX-2 and LXA4 work at the cellular/molecular level, Dr. Bruce Levy and colleagues are exploring the resolution of acid-induced injury of the epithelial barrier of the lungs.

Using a cell culture system that replicates the air-cell interface of the lungs, Dr. Levy's group applied acid directly to the surface of the cell layer, inducing injury and death of the top layer of cells, which were shed within 2 hours. Remarkably, the layer was mostly restored within 6 hours. But how did this restoration occur?

By 2 hours following injury, the researchers found increased expression of COX-2 and the LXA4 receptor (ALX), which relied, in part, on COX-2 derived products, such as prostaglandin E2. LXA4, known to aid resolution of injury in vivo, induced proliferation of basal airway epithelial cells and reduced release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the culture system. In addition, LXA4 further prevents acute inflammation by blocking experimental transmigration of neutrophils into the damaged region. Combined, these events promote restoration of the damaged layer of cells without the added injury that can occur from excessive neutrophil and epithelial cell inflammatory responses.

These data demonstrate the importance of the anti-inflammatory function of LXA4 and its receptors (ALX) in the respiratory tract's ability to heal following acid-aspiration-induced lung injury. The capacity to enhance LXA4 signaling therapeutically may allow faster resolution of such lung injury in patients with severe disease, providing a potential new treatment in the struggle against acid-induced lung diseases, including ARDS.

Finally, this new model of acid aspiration lung injury accurately imitates in vivo cell death and shedding as well as recovery, thus providing researchers a means of testing new treatment strategies for hastening resolution of acid-induced damage.

This work was supported in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health and fellowships from La Fondation de la Recherche Medicale, Pfizer, and the Uehara Memorial Research Foundation.

This work involved collaborators at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, and Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

The American Journal of Pathology, the official journal of the American Society for Investigative Pathology (ASIP), seeks to publish high-quality original papers on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease. The editors accept manuscripts which report important findings on disease pathogenesis or basic biological mechanisms that relate to disease, without preference for a specific method of analysis. High priority is given to studies on human disease and relevant experimental models using cellular, molecular, biological, animal, chemical and immunological approaches in conjunction with morphology.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Journal of Pathology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Journal of Pathology. "Gains In The Fight Against Acid Aspiration Lung Injury." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 May 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060504075945.htm>.
American Journal of Pathology. (2006, May 4). Gains In The Fight Against Acid Aspiration Lung Injury. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060504075945.htm
American Journal of Pathology. "Gains In The Fight Against Acid Aspiration Lung Injury." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/05/060504075945.htm (accessed July 22, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Courts Conflicted Over Healthcare Law

Courts Conflicted Over Healthcare Law

AP (July 22, 2014) Two federal appeals courts issued conflicting rulings Tuesday on the legality of the federally-run healthcare exchange that operates in 36 states. (July 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Why Do People Believe We Only Use 10 Percent Of Our Brains?

Why Do People Believe We Only Use 10 Percent Of Our Brains?

Newsy (July 22, 2014) The new sci-fi thriller "Lucy" is making people question whether we really use all our brainpower. But, as scientists have insisted for years, we do. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Scientists Find New Way To Make Human Platelets

Scientists Find New Way To Make Human Platelets

Newsy (July 22, 2014) Boston scientists have discovered a new way to create fully functioning human platelets using a bioreactor and human stem cells. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Gilead's $1000-a-Pill Drug Could Cure Hep C in HIV-Positive People

Gilead's $1000-a-Pill Drug Could Cure Hep C in HIV-Positive People

TheStreet (July 21, 2014) New research shows Gilead Science's drug Sovaldi helps in curing hepatitis C in those who suffer from HIV. In a medical study, the combination of Gilead's Hep C drug with anti-viral drug Ribavirin cured 76% of HIV-positive patients suffering from the most common hepatitis C strain. Hepatitis C and related complications have been a top cause of death in HIV-positive patients. Typical medication used to treat the disease, including interferon proteins, tended to react badly with HIV drugs. However, Sovaldi's %1,000-a-pill price tag could limit the number of patients able to access the treatment. TheStreet's Keris Lahiff reports from New York. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins