Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New Cellular Mechanism That Will Significantly Advance Vaccine Development Discovered

Date:
June 18, 2008
Source:
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology
Summary:
Scientists have discovered a new, previously unknown mechanism in how the body fights a virus. The finding runs counter to traditional scientific understanding of this process and will provide scientists a more effective method for developing vaccines.

La Jolla Institute for Allergy & Immunology (LIAI) scientists have discovered one for the textbooks. Their finding, reported June 13 in the scientific journal Immunity, illuminates a new, previously unknown mechanism in how the body fights a virus. The finding runs counter to traditional scientific understanding of this process and will provide scientists a more effective method for developing vaccines.

Related Articles


"Our research grew from the question, "why do you get good antibody responses to some parts of (virus) pathogens and poor responses to other parts?" said LIAI scientist Shane Crotty, Ph.D., the lead researcher on the paper, "Selective CD4 T cell help for antibody responses to a large viral pathogen: deterministic linkage of specificities." Alessandro Sette, Ph.D., a renowned vaccine expert and director of the LIAI Center for Infectious Disease, also was a key contributor on the study. Dr. Crotty said the team studied the smallpox vaccine, considered the "gold standard" of vaccines, and found some startling answers.

"We expected one thing based on textbook knowledge and that didn't happen at all," he said. It was known previously that getting a good antibody response requires two different cells of the immune system -- B cells and CD4 T cells, both soldiers in the immune system's defensive army. Antibody responses are important because they help the body fight off viruses and they also are key to vaccine development. Surprisingly, however, Dr. Crotty said the researchers found that B cells and CD4 T cells recognize the same piece of the virus.

"Previously, it was thought that the CD4 T cell could react to any part of the virus, but now we realize it must be specific to the same part as the B cell," he explained. "When you have a hundred different parts, this knowledge makes a big difference. It narrows down the search for the right antigens tremendously."

Scientists use knowledge of which antigens (virus pieces) trigger an antibody attack to develop vaccines. Vaccines work by exposing the individual to a milder form of a particular virus, so that the body makes antibodies to fight off the virus. Consequently, if the individual is later exposed to the actual virus, the body already has an army of antibodies built up that can fight off this stronger viral attack before it can overtake the body and cause sickness.

With the knowledge gained from the LIAI study, scientists will now be able to more easily figure out the most important viral pieces to focus on in developing a vaccine. "The fact that it requires two components to fight the (virus) pathogen is important to understand," Dr. Crotty said. "So now when we find out which viral pieces are producing a strong response from the B cells, we can cross check that against the viral pieces eliciting a good response from the CD4 T cells. The point at which these virus pieces cross - in other words where the same piece is eliciting a response from both the B cells and CD4 T cells - then we know we have found our best candidate for creating a vaccine."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. "New Cellular Mechanism That Will Significantly Advance Vaccine Development Discovered." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 June 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080616144856.htm>.
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. (2008, June 18). New Cellular Mechanism That Will Significantly Advance Vaccine Development Discovered. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 27, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080616144856.htm
La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology. "New Cellular Mechanism That Will Significantly Advance Vaccine Development Discovered." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/06/080616144856.htm (accessed March 27, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Friday, March 27, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Raw: Lioness Has Rare Five-Cub Litter

Raw: Lioness Has Rare Five-Cub Litter

AP (Mar. 27, 2015) — A lioness in Pakistan has given birth to five cubs, twice the usual size of a litter. Queen gave birth to two other cubs just nine months ago. (March 27) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Jockey Motion Tracking Reveals Racing Prowess

Jockey Motion Tracking Reveals Racing Prowess

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Mar. 26, 2015) — Using motion tracking technology, researchers from the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) are trying to establish an optimum horse riding style to train junior jockeys, as well as enhance safety, health and well-being of both racehorses and jockeys. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Bear Cubs Tumble for the Media

Bear Cubs Tumble for the Media

Reuters - Light News Video Online (Mar. 26, 2015) — Two Andean bear cubs are unveiled at the U.S. National Zoo in Washington, D.C. Alicia Powell reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Botswana Talks to End Illegal Wildlife Trade

Botswana Talks to End Illegal Wildlife Trade

AFP (Mar. 25, 2015) — Experts are gathering in Botswana to try to end the illegal wildlife trade that is decimating populations of elephants, rhinos and other threatened species. Duration: 01:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins