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Bee Swarms Follow High-speed 'Streaker' Bees To Find A New Nest

Date:
November 24, 2008
Source:
The Journal of Experimental Biology
Summary:
How does a swarm of bees find its way to a new nest site when less then 5 percent of the community knows the way? Filming bee swarms as they relocated to new nest site and analyzing the insects' apparently chaotic course, scientists have found that "streaker" bees fly through the swarm at high speed to guide it.

Scientists have found that "streaker" bees fly through the swarm at high speed to guide it.
Credit: iStockphoto/Peter Miller

It's one of the hallmarks of spring: a swarm of bees on the move. But how a swarm locates a new nest site when less than 5% of the community know the way remains a mystery. Curious to find out how swarms cooperate and are guided to their new homes, Tom Seeley, a neurobiologist from Cornell University, and engineers Kevin Schultz and Kevin Passino from The Ohio State University teamed up to find out how swarms are guided to their new home.

According to Schultz there are two theories on how swarms find the way. In the 'subtle guide' theory, a small number of scout bees, which had been involved in selecting the new nest site, guide the swarm by flying unobtrusively in its midst; near neighbours adjust their flight path to avoid colliding with the guides while more distant insects align themselves to the guides' general direction. In the 'streaker bee' hypothesis, bees follow a few conspicuous guides that fly through the top half of the swarm at high speed.

Schultz explains that Seeley already had still photographs of the streaks left by high-speed bees flying through a swarm's upper layers, but what Seeley needed was movie footage of a swarm on the move to see if the swarm was following high-velocity streakers or being unobtrusively directed by guides. Passino and Seeley decided to film swarming bees with high-definition movie cameras to find out how they were directed to their final destination.

But filming diffuse swarms spread along a 12m length with each individual on her own apparently random course is easier said than done. For a start you have to locate your camera somewhere along the swarm's flight path, which is impossible to predict in most environments. The team overcame this problem by relocating to Appledore Island, which has virtually no high vegetation for swarms to settle on. By transporting large colonies of bees, complete with queen, to the island, the team could get the insects to swarm from a stake to the only available nesting site; a comfortable nesting box. Situating the camera on the most direct route between the two sites, the team successfully filmed several swarms' chaotic progress at high resolution.

Back in Passino's Ohio lab, Schultz began the painstaking task of analysing over 3500 frames from a swarm fly-by to build up a picture of the insects' flight directions and vertical position. After months of bee-clicking, Schultz was able to find patterns in the insects' progress. For example, bees in the top of the swarm tended to fly faster and generally aimed towards the nest, with bees concentrated in the middle third of the top layer showing the strongest preference to head towards the nest.

Schultz also admits that he was surprised at how random the bees' trajectories were in the bottom half of the swarm, 'they were going in every direction,' he says, but the bees that were flying towards the new nest generally flew faster than bees that were heading in other directions; they appeared to latch onto the high-speed streakers. All of which suggests that the swarm was following high-speed streaker bees to their new location.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by The Journal of Experimental Biology. The original article was written by Kathryn Phillips. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Schultz, K. M., Passino, K. M. and Seeley, T. D. The mechanism of flight guidance in honeybee swarms: subtle guides or streaker bees? The Journal of Experimental Biology, October 3, 2008, 211, 3287-3295

Cite This Page:

The Journal of Experimental Biology. "Bee Swarms Follow High-speed 'Streaker' Bees To Find A New Nest." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 November 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081003081637.htm>.
The Journal of Experimental Biology. (2008, November 24). Bee Swarms Follow High-speed 'Streaker' Bees To Find A New Nest. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 19, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081003081637.htm
The Journal of Experimental Biology. "Bee Swarms Follow High-speed 'Streaker' Bees To Find A New Nest." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081003081637.htm (accessed April 19, 2014).

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