Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Golf Course Putting Greens Show Their Age: Researchers Seek To Maintain Healthy Greens, Reduce Construction Costs

Date:
September 14, 2009
Source:
American Society for Horticultural Science
Summary:
Just like the rest of us, golf courses show their age -- especially on putting greens, which experience more foot traffic than anywhere else on golf courses. Putting greens, which comprise 1.6 percent of the total area on most courses, require more intensive management than any other part of the course. To keep putting greens in top form, turfgrass experts study ways to provide proper nutrients to the root zone, a critical area for maintaining healthy turf.

Just like the rest of us, golf courses show their age—especially on putting greens, which experience more foot traffic than anywhere else on golf courses. Putting greens, which comprise only about 1.6% of the total area on most courses, require more intensive management than any other part of the course. To keep putting greens in top form, turfgrass experts study ways to provide proper nutrients to the root zone, a critical area for maintaining healthy turf.

Related Articles


Putting greens are dynamic; greens experience chemical, physical, and biological changes that occur over time. Organic matter begins to accumulate and contribute to the deterioration of the root zone soon after turfgrass establishment occurs on sand-based root zones. Chemical properties such as pH and cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the root zone influence availability of essential nutrients and impact turfgrass use, maintenance, and performance. Inadequate or excessive soil nutrient levels can lead to problems in turfgrass health, vigor, and quality.

To better understand nutrient and chemical changes in turfgrass sand-based root zones, Dr. Roch E. Gaussoin and colleagues from the Department of Agronomy and Horticulture at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, conducted a research study designed to characterize nutrient and chemical properties in putting greens influenced by root-zone mixture and establishment treatment, putting green age, and soil depth. The results of the 3-year research were published in a recent issue of HortScience.

Research was conducted at the University of Nebraska's John Seaton Anderson Turfgrass Research Facility located near Mead, Nebraska. Four experimental putting greens were constructed in sequential years from 1997 to 2000. Treatments included root-zone mixtures of 80:20 (v:v) sand and sphagnum peat and 80:15:5 (v:v:v) sand, sphagnum peat, and soil, and accelerated versus controlled establishment.

In the establishment year, the accelerated treatment received 2.6-, 3.0-, and 2.6-fold more nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, respectively, than the controlled treatment. Soil samples were analyzed for nutrient and chemical properties such as pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter (OM), total soluble salts (TSS), and 12 nutrients. Researchers found that the 80:20 (sand:peat) root zone was generally not chemically different from the 80:15:5 (sand:peat:soil) for any of the three studies. According to Gaussoin, "establishment treatment had no effect beyond the establishment year except for increased P for greens that received the accelerated establishment treatment."

Organic matter accumulation in the upper region of the putting green root zones studied may have contributed to increased retention of nutrient and chemical properties near the putting green surface, particularly as the putting greens increased in age.

Gaussoin added; "Because root zone had minimal to no effect, replacing some of the peat with soil in the root zone could reduce construction costs and aid in nutrient retention as long as the soil-amended root zone meets USGA specifications." The researchers also concluded that because the additional nutrient inputs were not retained in root zones in this study, increased fertility inputs during the establishment year may not be environmentally responsible.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Society for Horticultural Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. McClellan, Ty A., Gaussoin, Roch E., Shearman, Robert C., Wortmann, Charles S., Mamo, Martha, Horst, Garald L., Marx, David B. Nutrient and Chemical Properties of Aging Golf Course Putting Greens as Impacted by Soil Depth and Mat Development. HortScience, 2009; 44: 452-458 [link]

Cite This Page:

American Society for Horticultural Science. "Golf Course Putting Greens Show Their Age: Researchers Seek To Maintain Healthy Greens, Reduce Construction Costs." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 September 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090903163943.htm>.
American Society for Horticultural Science. (2009, September 14). Golf Course Putting Greens Show Their Age: Researchers Seek To Maintain Healthy Greens, Reduce Construction Costs. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090903163943.htm
American Society for Horticultural Science. "Golf Course Putting Greens Show Their Age: Researchers Seek To Maintain Healthy Greens, Reduce Construction Costs." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090903163943.htm (accessed December 22, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Monday, December 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Earthworms Provide Cancer-Fighting Bacteria

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) Polish scientists isolate bacteria from earthworm intestines which they say may be used in antibiotics and cancer treatments. Suzannah Butcher reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Existing Chemical Compounds Could Revive Failing Antibiotics, Says Danish Scientist

Existing Chemical Compounds Could Revive Failing Antibiotics, Says Danish Scientist

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Dec. 21, 2014) A team of scientists led by Danish chemist Jorn Christensen says they have isolated two chemical compounds within an existing antipsychotic medication that could be used to help a range of failing antibiotics work against killer bacterial infections, such as Tuberculosis. Jim Drury went to meet him. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

Researchers Test Colombian Village With High Alzheimer's Rates

AFP (Dec. 19, 2014) In Yarumal, a village in N. Colombia, Alzheimer's has ravaged a disproportionately large number of families. A genetic "curse" that may pave the way for research on how to treat the disease that claims a new victim every four seconds. Duration: 02:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Monarch Butterflies Descend Upon Mexican Forest During Annual Migration

Monarch Butterflies Descend Upon Mexican Forest During Annual Migration

Reuters - Light News Video Online (Dec. 19, 2014) Millions of monarch butterflies begin to descend onto Mexico as part of their annual migration south. Rough Cut (no reporter narration) Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins