Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Barrier in mosquito midgut protects invading pathogens

Date:
March 14, 2010
Source:
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Summary:
Scientists studying the Anopheles gambiae mosquito have found that the act of feeding triggers two enzymes to form a protective barrier that prevents the mosquito's immune defense system from clearing disease-causing agents that can be passed on to humans. Disrupting the protein barrier can trigger mosquito immune defenses to intervene and protect the insect from infection. This finding could inform new strategies for blocking malaria transmission.

What: Scientists studying the Anopheles gambiae mosquito -- the main vector of malaria -- have found that when the mosquito takes a blood meal, that act triggers two enzymes to form a network of crisscrossing proteins around the ingested blood. The formation of this protein barrier, the researchers found, is part of the normal digestive process that allows so-called "healthy" or commensal gut bacteria to grow without activating mosquito immune responses.

Related Articles


But there is a downside: The barrier also prevents the mosquito's immune defense system from clearing any disease-causing agents that may have slipped into the blood meal, such as the Plasmodium malaria parasite, which in turn can be passed on to humans.

Disrupting the protein barrier, however, can trigger mosquito immune defenses to intervene and protect the insect from infection, notes the research team from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. The enzymes involved in the protein barrier are called immunomodulatory peroxidase (IMPer) and dual oxidase (Duox). The researchers believe it might be possible to prevent the formation of the protein barrier by immunizing people with IMPer or the proteins that crisscross. This vaccine would generate antibodies that, after a mosquito feeds on a human, could disrupt the barrier, reduce parasite survival in the mosquito and prevent malaria transmission.

The role of IMPer-Duox in forming a protective barrier was unexpected -- and previously unrecognized, according to Carolina Barillas-Mury, M.D., Ph.D., the senior study author. When her research group silenced, or turned off, the gene for either IMPer or Duox, the mosquito's midgut immune system took over and greatly reduced Plasmodium infection, indicating that IMPer and Duox are both required for parasite survival.

The IMPer-Duox system also is found in the mucous membrane of some human tissues, such as the colon. Dr. Barillas-Mury's group is investigating whether a protective protein barrier similar to that seen in mosquitoes also forms in vertebrates, including humans. If so, the barrier could be part of the process that normally prevents the colon from activating immune responses against commensal bacteria, as this would be harmful and lead to chronic inflammation. The existence of such a barrier in humans could have broad implications for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as chronic inflammatory bowel disease.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. S Kumar et al. A peroxidase/dual oxidase system modulates midgut epithelial immunity in Anopheles gambiae. Science, March 12, 2010 DOI: 10.1126/science.1184008 (2010)

Cite This Page:

NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Barrier in mosquito midgut protects invading pathogens." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 March 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100311175043.htm>.
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2010, March 14). Barrier in mosquito midgut protects invading pathogens. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100311175043.htm
NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "Barrier in mosquito midgut protects invading pathogens." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/03/100311175043.htm (accessed November 27, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Nov. 26, 2014) Researchers in the United States are preparing to discover whether a drug commonly used in human organ transplants can extend the lifespan and health quality of pet dogs. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Newsy (Nov. 26, 2014) Advances in prosthetics are making replacement body parts stronger and more lifelike than they’ve ever been. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) The US FDA is announcing new calorie rules on Tuesday that will require everywhere from theaters to vending machines to include calorie counts. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) Need another reason to eat yogurt every day? Researchers now say it could reduce a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins