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Evidence that nanoparticles in sunscreens could be toxic if accidentally eaten

Date:
April 7, 2010
Source:
American Chemical Society
Summary:
Scientists are reporting that particle size affects the toxicity of zinc oxide, a material widely used in sunscreens. Particles smaller than 100 nanometers are slightly more toxic to colon cells than conventional zinc oxide. Solid zinc oxide was more toxic than equivalent amounts of soluble zinc, and direct particle to cell contact was required to cause cell death.

Sunscreens contain nanoparticles of zinc oxide -- used to prevent the damaging effects of sunlight -- that can harm colon cells and may be toxic if accidentally eaten.
Credit: iStockphoto/Jan Tyler

Scientists are reporting that particle size affects the toxicity of zinc oxide, a material widely used in sunscreens. Particles smaller than 100 nanometers are slightly more toxic to colon cells than conventional zinc oxide. Solid zinc oxide was more toxic than equivalent amounts of soluble zinc, and direct particle to cell contact was required to cause cell death. Their study is in ACS' Chemical Research in Toxicology, a monthly journal.

Philip Moos and colleagues note that there is ongoing concern about the potential toxicity of nanoparticles of various materials, which may have different physical and chemical properties than larger particles. Barely 1/50,000 the width of a human hair, nanoparticles are used in foods, cosmetics and other consumer products. Some sunscreens contain nanoparticles of zinc oxide. "Unintended exposure to nano-sized zinc oxide from children accidentally eating sunscreen products is a typical public concern, motivating the study of the effects of nanomaterials in the colon," the scientists note.

Their experiments with cell cultures of colon cells compared the effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles to zinc oxide sold as a conventional powder. They found that the nanoparticles were twice as toxic to the cells as the larger particles.

Although the nominal particle size was 1,000 times larger, the conventional zinc oxide contained a wide range of particle sizes and included material small enough to be considered as nanoparticles. The concentration of nanoparticles that was toxic to the colon cells was equivalent to eating 2 grams of sunscreen -- about 0.1 ounce. This study used isolated cells to study biochemical effects and did not consider the changes to particles during passage through the digestive tract. The scientists say that further research should be done to determine whether zinc nanoparticle toxicity occurs in laboratory animals and people.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Moos et al. ZnO Particulate Matter Requires Cell Contact for Toxicity in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2010; 100215135857018 DOI: 10.1021/tx900203v

Cite This Page:

American Chemical Society. "Evidence that nanoparticles in sunscreens could be toxic if accidentally eaten." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 April 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100407110824.htm>.
American Chemical Society. (2010, April 7). Evidence that nanoparticles in sunscreens could be toxic if accidentally eaten. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100407110824.htm
American Chemical Society. "Evidence that nanoparticles in sunscreens could be toxic if accidentally eaten." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100407110824.htm (accessed October 21, 2014).

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