Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Monocyte turnover predicts speed and severity of AIDS and onset of brain disease

Date:
April 20, 2010
Source:
Boston College
Summary:
Researchers report the first observation within AIDS of a marker in blood or plasma exclusive to monocytes, which underscores the relationship between innate immune response and the devastating effects of AIDS within the brain.

In healthy individuals, protective white blood cells called monocytes travel from bone marrow to the bloodstream to the brain. Researchers from Boston College, examining the role of monocytes in the progression of AIDS brain disease, show in this image the presence of macrophages -- white blood cells located within tissues -- that are both productively infected with AIDS and cells that are non-productively infected. In this image taken from the brain of a monkey infected with simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV, the red-colored cells labeled with BrdU+ from the bone marrow, were non-productively infected. Yet they were present in the brain lesion of the animal alongside productively infected green SIVp28 cells and blue CD68+ macrophages. The tracking of the BrdU cells to the SIV brain lesions is a critical finding, placing the non-productively infected cells in sites of active viral replication.
Credit: PLoS Pathogens

An increase in the release of monocytes from bone marrow into the bloodstream predicts how rapidly AIDS develops in monkeys and the magnitude of monocyte turnover correlates with the severity of brain disease in AIDS, Boston College researchers report in the current edition of the online journal PLoS Pathogens.

Related Articles


The researchers report the first observation within AIDS of a marker in blood or plasma exclusive to monocytes, which underscores the relationship between innate immune response and the devastating effects of AIDS within the brain. The findings also suggest a potential clinical use of the marker to monitor HIV disease activity, according to Boston College Professor of Biology Kenneth Williams, co-author of the study.

The findings advance the understanding of the role that seemingly protective monocytes play in the deadly progression of HIV and AIDS in the brain, which is an increasingly critical issue. While mortality rates from AIDS have declined thanks to antiretroviral drugs, AIDS-related dementia remains just as prevalent, particularly as AIDS patients live longer.

White blood cells that play a critical role in the immune system's response to sickness, monocytes migrate from bone marrow to blood and, in the case of HIV infection, cross the blood-brain barrier, which normally keeps monocyte levels low in the brains of health individuals. Williams and his lab study monocytes and their more aggressive infection-fighting form, macrophages.

Williams and his co-authors tracked the journey of monocytes by chemically marking the cells to better follow their movement in primates infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).

The study found that the monocytes that were labeled in the bone marrow, and trafficked through the blood, were found in the brain within SIV lesions. All of the cells with the marker were of a particular subtype of monocyte and macrophage known to be important in amplifying immune responses.

Williams' BC colleague and lead author , Researcher Patricia Burdo, said the study showed the magnitude of cells leaving the bone marrow as seen as marked monocytes predicted which animals would succumb to AIDS rapidly and at death correlated with the severity of SIV brain disease.

Correspondingly, the research also revealed the presence of a protein, soluble CD163, that is only made by monocytes, linked to monocyte expansion and therefore predicted disease progression. Burdo said marked monocytes were found in brain lesions, offering further evidence that these infection-fighting blood cells play a role in the damage AIDS does to the brain.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Boston College. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Tricia H. Burdo, Caroline Soulas, Krystyna Orzechowski, Jessica Button, Anitha Krishnan, Chie Sugimoto, Xavier Alvarez, Marcelo J. Kuroda, Kenneth C. Williams, Danny C. Douek. Increased Monocyte Turnover from Bone Marrow Correlates with Severity of SIV Encephalitis and CD163 Levels in Plasma. PLoS Pathogens, 2010; 6 (4): e1000842 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000842

Cite This Page:

Boston College. "Monocyte turnover predicts speed and severity of AIDS and onset of brain disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 20 April 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100415171406.htm>.
Boston College. (2010, April 20). Monocyte turnover predicts speed and severity of AIDS and onset of brain disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100415171406.htm
Boston College. "Monocyte turnover predicts speed and severity of AIDS and onset of brain disease." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/04/100415171406.htm (accessed October 25, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

Buzz60 (Oct. 24, 2014) IKEA is out with a new convertible desk that can convert from a sitting desk to a standing one with just the push of a button. Jen Markham explains. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

AFP (Oct. 24, 2014) A factory in China is busy making Ebola protective suits for healthcare workers and others fighting the spread of the virus. Duration: 00:38 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
WHO: Millions of Ebola Vaccine Doses by 2015

WHO: Millions of Ebola Vaccine Doses by 2015

AP (Oct. 24, 2014) The World Health Organization said on Friday that millions of doses of two experimental Ebola vaccines could be ready for use in 2015 and five more experimental vaccines would start being tested in March. (Oct. 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor in NYC Quarantined With Ebola

Doctor in NYC Quarantined With Ebola

AP (Oct. 24, 2014) An emergency room doctor who recently returned to the city after treating Ebola patients in West Africa has tested positive for the virus. He's quarantined in a hospital. (Oct. 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins