Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New world Helicobacter pylori genome sequenced, dynamics of inflammation-related genes revealed

Date:
June 17, 2010
Source:
Virginia Tech/Virginia Bioinformatics Institute
Summary:
An international team of researchers has sequenced the genome of an Amerindian strain of the gastric bug Helicobacter pylori, confirming the out-of-Africa migration of this bacterial stowaway to the New World. Experiments in animals have highlighted how specific genes in the bacterial strain may be crucial to the onset of inflammation and disease.

An international team of researchers led by scientists at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute (VBI) at Virginia Tech have sequenced the genome of an Amerindian strain of the gastric bug Helicobacter pylori, confirming the out-of-Africa migration of this bacterial stowaway to the New World. Experiments in animals have highlighted how specific genes in the bacterial strain may be crucial to the onset of inflammation and disease.

H. pylori is a bacterium that colonizes the stomachs of over half the world's human population. Different strains of the bug have lived with, evolved and followed humans on their travels since ancient times. H. pylori is now recognized as a major risk factor in the development of stomach cancer and ulcers. However, the details of what make some strains of the bug trigger disease and others not need to be fully worked out.

Martin Blaser of the New York University Langone Medical Center, one of the authors of the study, remarked: "Most sequencing efforts for H. pylori have focused on the bacterial genomes from individuals of European descent. The new sequence information helps to redress the geographic bias of earlier work and reveals important clues about the evolution and migration of the bacterium and its human host into the New World."

To help visualize the evolutionary relationships among the different H. pylori strains, the team built a robust phylogenetic tree that helps show the evolutionary relationships among the different biological strains. The tree of life that the scientists were able to piece together reflected the major human migration out of Africa, through Asia and into the New World. Consistent with earlier findings, similarities between the genetic make-up of the Amerindian strain and the genome of a strain from East Asia suggest that the first colonizers of the New World brought H. pylori with them.

Josep Bassaganya-Riera, associate professor and leader of the Nutritional Immunology Group at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech, senior author on the paper, commented: "In addition to building a picture of the H. pylori genome, we have been trying to find out what features of the Amerindian strain of H. pylori might be responsible for the low incidence of gastric cancer and other related conditions that have been reported in some geographic areas, including parts of South America. Our experiments show that a cytotoxin-associated gene known as cagA is essential to induce inflammation." He added: "Further experiments in mice have revealed that an unusual arrangement of these inflammation-related genes are lost when the organism interacts with its host in the stomach, which may explain the low incidence of gastric cancer and peptic ulcers in some populations of the New World. Further experiments are in progress to establish the causality of these observations and to develop computational and mathematical models of immune responses to H. pylori."

The scientists hope to use the insights gained from the analysis of the H. pylori genome to help in the development of diagnostic tools and therapies for inflammation-related diseases and conditions.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Virginia Tech/Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. The original article was written by Barry Whyte. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. S. P. Mane, M. G. Dominguez-Bello, M. J. Blaser, B. W. Sobral, R. Hontecillas, J. Skoneczka, S. K. Mohapatra, O. R. Crasta, C. Evans, T. Modise, S. Shallom, M. Shukla, C. Varon, F. Megraud, A. L. Maldonado-Contreras, K. P. Williams, J. Bassaganya-Riera. Host-Interactive Genes in Amerindian Helicobacter pylori Diverge from Their Old World Homologs and Mediate Inflammatory Responses. Journal of Bacteriology, 2010; 192 (12): 3078 DOI: 10.1128/JB.00063-10

Cite This Page:

Virginia Tech/Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. "New world Helicobacter pylori genome sequenced, dynamics of inflammation-related genes revealed." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 June 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100616102850.htm>.
Virginia Tech/Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. (2010, June 17). New world Helicobacter pylori genome sequenced, dynamics of inflammation-related genes revealed. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100616102850.htm
Virginia Tech/Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. "New world Helicobacter pylori genome sequenced, dynamics of inflammation-related genes revealed." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/06/100616102850.htm (accessed July 24, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, July 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Newsy (July 24, 2014) Sheik Umar Khan has treated many of the people infected in the Ebola outbreak, and now he's become one of them. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

AFP (July 24, 2014) America's death penalty debate raged Thursday after it took nearly two hours for Arizona to execute a prisoner who lost a Supreme Court battle challenging the experimental lethal drug cocktail. Duration: 00:55 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
China's Ageing Millions Look Forward to Bleak Future

China's Ageing Millions Look Forward to Bleak Future

AFP (July 24, 2014) China's elderly population is expanding so quickly that children struggle to look after them, pushing them to do something unexpected in Chinese society- move their parents into a nursing home. Duration: 02:07 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

    Health News

      Environment News

        Technology News



          Save/Print:
          Share:

          Free Subscriptions


          Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

          Get Social & Mobile


          Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

          Have Feedback?


          Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
          Mobile: iPhone Android Web
          Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
          Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
          Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins