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Toward a fast, simple test for detecting cholera rampaging in 40 countries

Date:
February 9, 2011
Source:
American Chemical Society
Summary:
With cholera on the rampage in Haiti and almost 40 other countries, scientists are reporting the development of a key advance that could provide a fast, simple test to detect the toxin that causes the disease. Cholera affects more than 200,000 people annually, mainly in developing countries, and causes about 5,000 deaths. Many involve infants, children, and the elderly.

With cholera on the rampage in Haiti and almost 40 other countries, scientists are reporting the development of a key advance that could provide a fast, simple test to detect the toxin that causes the disease. Cholera affects more than 200,000 people annually, mainly in developing countries, and causes about 5,000 deaths. Many involve infants, children, and the elderly.

J. Manuel Perez and colleagues note that cholera is an intestinal infection from food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It produces a toxin that can cause severe diarrhea, which can lead to rapid dehydration and death. Prompt treatment thus is essential, and yet existing tests to diagnose cholera are time-consuming, expensive, and require the use of complex equipment.

The scientists describe a key advance toward a better, faster test. The new method uses specially prepared nanoparticles of iron oxide, each barely 1/50,000th the width of a single human hair, coated with a type of sugar called dextran. To achieve this, they looked for specific characteristics of the cholera toxin receptor (GM1) found on cells' surface in the victim's gut, and then they introduced these features to their nanoparticles. When the magnetic nanoparticles are added to water, blood, or other fluids to be tested, the cholera toxin binds to the nanoparticles in a way that can be easily detected by instruments. The test hardware can be turned into portable gear that health care workers could use in the field, the scientists say. The approach also shows promise for treating cholera intoxication.

The report appears in ACS' journal Bioconjugate Chemistry. The authors acknowledge funding from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences at the National Institutes of Health.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Charalambos Kaittanis, Tuhina Banerjee, Santimukul Santra, Oscar J. Santiesteban, Ken Teter, J. Manuel Perez. Identification of Molecular-Mimicry-Based Ligands for Cholera Diagnostics using Magnetic Relaxation. Bioconjugate Chemistry, 2011; 110112104343037 DOI: 10.1021/bc100442q

Cite This Page:

American Chemical Society. "Toward a fast, simple test for detecting cholera rampaging in 40 countries." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 February 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110209124350.htm>.
American Chemical Society. (2011, February 9). Toward a fast, simple test for detecting cholera rampaging in 40 countries. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110209124350.htm
American Chemical Society. "Toward a fast, simple test for detecting cholera rampaging in 40 countries." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110209124350.htm (accessed October 22, 2014).

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