Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Circulating blood antibodies are not required for HIV protection, study suggests

Date:
February 11, 2011
Source:
Cell Press
Summary:
A vaccine which stimulates production of specific anti-HIV antibodies in the vaginal tissue was sufficient to protect monkeys from exposure to live virus, according to a new study. The results may also help to explain why a few individuals who lack anti-HIV antibodies in the blood are able to resist infection, even when they are repeatedly exposed to HIV.

New research shows that protective immunity against HIV can be achieved without the presence of virus neutralizing antibodies in the blood. The study, published in the February issue of the journal Immunity, demonstrates that a vaccine which stimulates production of specific anti-HIV antibodies in the vaginal tissue was sufficient to protect monkeys from exposure to live virus. The results may also help to explain why a few individuals who lack anti-HIV antibodies in the blood are able to resist infection, even when they are repeatedly exposed to HIV.

HIV is most often transmitted by sexual relations when infected body fluids of one individual contact the genital or rectal mucous membranes of another. After initial infection in the mucous membranes, or mucosa, the virus rapidly copies itself and floods the bloodstream. A common HIV-1 vaccine strategy has been to induce HIV antibodies in the blood. However, this approach has not proven effective and alternative strategies are needed. "We designed a vaccine strategy to protect the initial sites of viral entry, especially the female genitals and the rectum, by inducing antibodies within the mucosa itself that hopefully will be able to prevent the establishment of early viral infection," explains lead study author Dr. Morgane Bomsel from the Institut Cochin in Paris.

Dr. Bomsel and colleagues developed a vaccine targeted against gp41, a region of HIV that has shown some promise in studies of mucosal HIV-1 challenge. The vaccine was administered to Macaques through both intranasal and intramuscular routes. Animals were exposed to simian HIV vaginally and tested for infection six months later. Remarkably, five of five vaccinated animals were protected from viral replication in the blood and exhibited vaginal gp41-specific antibodies with various viral neutralizing effects. The mucosal antibodies blocked a pathway that HIV uses to enter the mucosa, while the antibodies in the plasma of these animals completely lacked the ability to neutralize the virus.

Although the authors caution that further work is needed to learn more about the duration of the protective immune response observed here, the findings are significant. "Our results clearly challenge the paradigm that mucosal protection requires significantly high levels of antibodies with virus neutralizing capacity in the blood. Furthermore two classes of vaginal antibodies, IgA and IgG, were induced in the mucosa by the vaccine and exerted complementary antiviral functions to stop the virus very early in its entry at the mucosa," concludes Dr. Bomsel. "These findings may help to explain why a small population of highly exposed, but HIV-negative, women who exhibit gp41-specific IgA in their vaginal secretions are protected from infection. We may have been able to recapitulate in a vaccine what a few individuals do naturally."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Lucia Lopalco and Sylvain Fleury. Immunization with HIV-1 gp41 Subunit Virosomes Induces Mucosal Antibodies Protecting Nonhuman Primates against Vaginal SHIV Challenges. Immunity, (in press) DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.01.015

Cite This Page:

Cell Press. "Circulating blood antibodies are not required for HIV protection, study suggests." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 February 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110210122929.htm>.
Cell Press. (2011, February 11). Circulating blood antibodies are not required for HIV protection, study suggests. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110210122929.htm
Cell Press. "Circulating blood antibodies are not required for HIV protection, study suggests." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/02/110210122929.htm (accessed July 31, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 30, 2014) Obamacare-related costs were said to be behind the profit plunge at Wellpoint and Humana, but Wellpoint sees the new exchanges boosting its earnings for the full year. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Peace Corps Pulls Workers From W. Africa Over Ebola Fears

Peace Corps Pulls Workers From W. Africa Over Ebola Fears

Newsy (July 30, 2014) The Peace Corps is one of several U.S.-based organizations to pull workers out of West Africa because of the Ebola outbreak. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Weather Kills 2K A Year, But Storms Aren't The Main Offender

Weather Kills 2K A Year, But Storms Aren't The Main Offender

Newsy (July 30, 2014) Health officials say 2,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. due to weather, but it's excessive heat and cold that claim the most lives. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Concern Grows Over Worsening Ebola Crisis

Concern Grows Over Worsening Ebola Crisis

AFP (July 30, 2014) Pan-African airline ASKY has suspended all flights to and from the capitals of Liberia and Sierra Leone amid the worsening Ebola health crisis, which has so far caused 672 deaths in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Duration: 00:43 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

    Technology News



    Save/Print:
    Share:

    Free Subscriptions


    Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

    Get Social & Mobile


    Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

    Have Feedback?


    Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
    Mobile: iPhone Android Web
    Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
    Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
    Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins