Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New and old threats to soybean production

Date:
June 23, 2011
Source:
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences
Summary:
Researchers have identified the top pathogens, pests and weeds affecting soybean production in a new article. Soybean aphid, soybean rust, soybean cyst nematode, Sclerotina stem rot and the exotic pathogen, red leaf blotch, are discussed as some of the top biotic constraints that may affect soybean production now and in the future.

Symptoms of red leaf blotch.
Credit: Photo provided by Glen Hartman, University of Illinois

University of Illinois researchers identified the top pathogens, pests and weeds affecting soybean production in a recent article in Food Security. Soybean aphid, soybean rust, soybean cyst nematode, Sclerotina stem rot and the exotic pathogen, red leaf blotch, were featured as some of the top biotic constraints that may affect soybean production now and in the future.

"Enormous potential exists to increase future soybean production," said Glen Hartman, U of I professor of crop sciences and USDA-ARS research scientist. "Genetic resources, used through both traditional breeding and bioengineering, may provide the solutions needed to combat current and future disease problems."

As soybean production has increased over the past 50 years, so has the intensity of biotic constraints that ultimately threaten yield.

"Where soybean is grown every year or even every other year, pathogens often have increased in density to cause economic losses in yield," Hartman said. "Parasitic microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, nematodes, Oomycetes, and viruses all contribute to economic damage. A similar story occurs for pests; many, such as aphids, beetles, mites, and stinkbugs, cause considerable economic damage to the soybean crop."

Although aphids, rust, nematode and Sclerotina stem rot are commonly known and recognized by soybean growers, less information is known on red leaf blotch, an exotic disease caused by the fungal pathogen Phoma glycinicola, he said.

"The fungus that causes red leaf blotch is listed on the USDA Agricultural Select Agent List -- the same list as anthrax," Hartman said. "So far, this disease has only been reported in Africa. However, if red leaf blotch is found in the United States, a recovery plan through the USDA-APHIS program has been developed that outlines a course of action to prevent it from spreading."

Red leaf blotch symptoms include lesions on foliage, petioles, pods and stems. The fungus does not appear to be seedborne, but may be transported along with soil and other debris in grain. Yield losses of up to 50 percent were documented in Zambia and Zimbabwe in the 1980s.

"We don't want to scare people because this disease has not been found in the United States," Hartman said. "But we do want growers to be aware of it because they are typically the ones to find new pathogens, pests and weeds in their fields. Our goal is to build awareness among crop specialists and producers so we can stay ahead of it."

Hartman said more research is needed to develop molecular diagnostic techniques to identify this pathogen from other common foliar soybean pathogens, to provide better information on fungicide chemistry and application timing, to develop varietal resistance and gather more data to develop predictive models for potential containment and management.

To successfully reduce losses due to pathogens and pests, a number of practices used alone or in combination may be needed; these include cultural and seed sanitation techniques, pesticide applications, and deployment of soybean cultivars with resistance.

"Biosecurity of food crops is important because we don't want to suffer food shortages -- whether it's due to natural disasters or pathogens and pests that we can sometimes control," Hartman said. "If you are talking about food and crop improvement, you are always talking about reducing diseases and pests."

The article appeared in Food Security. Researchers included Hartman, Ellen West and Theresa Herman of the U of I. Funding was provided by the Illinois Soybean Association, the North Central Soybean Research Program and the Elizabeth Hageman Endowed Graduate Research Fellowship.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. The original article was written by Jennifer Shike. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Glen L. Hartman, Ellen D. West, Theresa K. Herman. Crops that feed the World 2. Soybean—worldwide production, use, and constraints caused by pathogens and pests. Food Security, 2011; 3 (1): 5 DOI: 10.1007/s12571-010-0108-x

Cite This Page:

University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. "New and old threats to soybean production." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 June 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110623174136.htm>.
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. (2011, June 23). New and old threats to soybean production. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110623174136.htm
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. "New and old threats to soybean production." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/06/110623174136.htm (accessed October 20, 2014).

Share This



More Plants & Animals News

Monday, October 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Raw: Rare Lion Cubs Make Debut at Belgrade Zoo

Raw: Rare Lion Cubs Make Debut at Belgrade Zoo

AP (Oct. 17, 2014) Two white lion cubs were born in Belgrade zoo three weeks ago. White lions are a rare mutation of a species found in South Africa and some cultures consider them divine. (Oct. 17) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Best Foods To Boost Your Mood

The Best Foods To Boost Your Mood

Buzz60 (Oct. 17, 2014) Feeling down? Reach for the refrigerator, not the medicine cabinet! TC Newman (@PurpleTCNewman) shares some of the best foods to boost your mood. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sweet Times for Hard Cider Makers

Sweet Times for Hard Cider Makers

AP (Oct. 16, 2014) With hard cider making a hardcore comeback across the country, craft makers are trying to keep up with demand and apple growers are tapping a juicy new revenue stream. (Oct. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Meet Garfi the Angry Cat

Meet Garfi the Angry Cat

Buzz60 (Oct. 16, 2014) Garfi is one frowny, feisty feline - downright angry! Ko Im (@koimtv) introduces us to the latest animal celebrity taking over the Internet. You can follow more of Garfi's adventures on Twitter (@MeetGarfi) and Facebook (Garfi). Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins