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By reprogramming skin cells into brain cells, scientists gain new insights into mental disorders

Date:
October 12, 2011
Source:
The Kavli Foundation
Summary:
By reprogramming skin cells from patients with mental disorders, scientists are creating brain cells that are now providing extraordinary insights into afflictions like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

Human neurons differentiated from skin-derived stem cells. Comparison of neurons from unaffected individuals and patients could provide insight into the underlying causes of neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Credit: Ji-Eun Kim and Anirvan Ghosh, UCSD

Using skin cells from patients with mental disorders, scientists are creating brain cells that are now providing extraordinary insights into afflictions like schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease.

For many poorly understood mental disorders, such as schizophrenia or autism, scientists often wish they could turn back the clock to uncover what has gone wrong in the brains of these patients, and how to right it before much brain damage ensues. But now, thanks to recent developments in the lab, that wish is coming true.

Researchers are using genetic engineering and growth factors to reprogram the skin cells of patients with schizophrenia, autism, and other neurological disorders and grow them into brain cells in the laboratory. There, under their careful watch, investigators can detect inherent defects in how neurons develop or function, or see what environmental toxins or other factors prod them to misbehave in the petri dish. With these "diseases in a dish" they can also test the effectiveness of drugs that can right missteps in development, or counter the harm of environmental insults.

"It's quite amazing that we can recapitulate a psychiatric disease in a petri dish," says neuroscientist Fred (Rusty) Gage, a professor of genetics at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and member of the executive committee of the Kavli Institute for Brain and Mind (KIBM) at the University of California, San Diego. "This allows us to identify subtle changes in the functioning of neuronal circuits that we never had access to before."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by The Kavli Foundation. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

The Kavli Foundation. "By reprogramming skin cells into brain cells, scientists gain new insights into mental disorders." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 October 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111012124205.htm>.
The Kavli Foundation. (2011, October 12). By reprogramming skin cells into brain cells, scientists gain new insights into mental disorders. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111012124205.htm
The Kavli Foundation. "By reprogramming skin cells into brain cells, scientists gain new insights into mental disorders." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/10/111012124205.htm (accessed April 17, 2014).

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