Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cholesterol-lowering medication accelerates depletion of plaque in arteries

Date:
January 11, 2012
Source:
NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine
Summary:
Researchers have discovered how cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins promote the breakdown of plaque in the arteries.

In a new study, NYU Langone Medical Center researchers have discovered how cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins promote the breakdown of plaque in the arteries. The study was published online by the journal PLoS One on December 6, 2011.

The findings support a large clinical study that recently showed patients taking high-doses of the cholesterol-lowering medications not only reduced their cholesterol levels but also reduced the amount of plaque in their arteries. However, until now researchers did not fully understand how statins could reduce atherosclerosis, the accumulation of fat and cholesterol that hardens into plaque in arteries, a major cause of mortality in Western countries. High blood cholesterol is a major culprit in atherosclerosis. As a result of narrowing arteries, blood clots can form or plaque can break off causing blockages in vessels. This can lead to a potentially fatal heart attack or stroke.

"Our new research shows statins actually promote the regression of atherosclerosis by altering the expression of a specific cell surface receptor within plaque cells," said co-author of the study, Edward Fisher, MD, PhD, Leon H. Charney Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine and director of the Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology Program at NYU Langone Medical Center. "This molecular phenomenon helps dissolve plaque by expelling coronary artery disease-causing cells from the plaque lining the arteries."

The NYU Langone study reveals how statins promote the transformation of arterial plaques by activating a protein that sits on the surface of macrophages, immune cells that are prevalent in plaque. The immune system sends macrophages to clean up cholesterol deposits in arteries, but once they fill up with the bad form of cholesterol they get stuck in the arteries, triggering the body's inflammatory response. The bloated macrophages then become major components of plaque lining artery walls.

In the study, researchers show in mouse models that statins activate the cell surface protein receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7), which in turn activates a cell-signaling pathway forcing macrophages out of plaque. In addition, the researchers show that macrophages only leave plaque when CCR7 is expressed. Therefore, regression of plaque is dependent on CCR7, the researchers concluded. The statins appeared to directly regulate and enhance CCR7 gene expression and induce macrophage cells to leave the plaque. CCR7 is a widely studied protein associated with the migration of immune cells and its expression is a marker of the presence of macrophages.

Statins are potent inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme that plays a central role in the production of cholesterol. Statins have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and cardiac events like heart attack. Cholesterol is needed for all proper cellular function. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), good cholesterol, helps reduce the risk of atherosclerosis by taking cholesterol away from cells. Low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), bad cholesterol, carries cholesterol to cells. However, an LDL overload in the body increases a person's risk of cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis.

"Our experimental findings indicate that statins, in addition to lowering LDL cholesterol, have clinical benefits of accelerating plaque regression by a newly discovered mechanism," said co-author Michael Garabedian, PhD, Professor, Department of Microbiology and Urology at NYU Langone Medical Center. "It's possible that these drugs could possibly be more beneficial to a wider population of patients potentially reducing the overall lifetime burden of plaque and the prevention of atherosclerosis."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Jonathan E. Feig, Yueting Shang, Noemi Rotllan, Yuliya Vengrenyuk, Chaowei Wu, Raanan Shamir, Ines Pineda Torra, Carlos Fernandez-Hernando, Edward A. Fisher, Michael J. Garabedian. Statins Promote the Regression of Atherosclerosis via Activation of the CCR7-Dependent Emigration Pathway in Macrophages. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6 (12): e28534 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028534

Cite This Page:

NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine. "Cholesterol-lowering medication accelerates depletion of plaque in arteries." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 January 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111213190027.htm>.
NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine. (2012, January 11). Cholesterol-lowering medication accelerates depletion of plaque in arteries. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 21, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111213190027.htm
NYU Langone Medical Center / New York University School of Medicine. "Cholesterol-lowering medication accelerates depletion of plaque in arteries." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111213190027.htm (accessed August 21, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, August 21, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Drug Used To Treat 'Ebola's Cousin' Shows Promise

Drug Used To Treat 'Ebola's Cousin' Shows Promise

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) An experimental drug used to treat Marburg virus in rhesus monkeys could give new insight into a similar treatment for Ebola. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Cadavers, a Teen, and a Medical School Dream

Cadavers, a Teen, and a Medical School Dream

AP (Aug. 21, 2014) Contains graphic content. He's only 17. But Johntrell Bowles has wanted to be a doctor from a young age, despite the odds against him. He was recently the youngest participant in a cadaver program at the Indiana University NW medical school. (Aug. 21) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
American Ebola Patients Released: What Cured Them?

American Ebola Patients Released: What Cured Them?

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) It's unclear whether the American Ebola patients' recoveries can be attributed to an experimental drug or early detection and good medical care. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Lost Brain Cells To Blame For Sleep Problems Among Seniors

Lost Brain Cells To Blame For Sleep Problems Among Seniors

Newsy (Aug. 21, 2014) According to a new study, elderly people might have trouble sleeping because of the loss of a certain group of neurons in the brain. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins