Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Beyond base-pairs: Mapping the functional genome

Date:
July 1, 2012
Source:
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences
Summary:
Researchers have now mapped, for the first time, a significant portion of the functional sequences of the mouse genome, the most widely used mammalian model organism in biomedical research.

In a paper published in the July 1, 2012, issue of the journal Nature, researchers at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine open the book further, mapping for the first time a significant portion of the functional sequences of the mouse genome, the most widely used mammalian model organism in biomedical research.
Credit: UC San Diego School of Medicine

Popularly dubbed "the book of life," the human genome is extraordinarily difficult to read. But without full knowledge of its grammar and syntax, the genome's 2.9 billion base-pairs of adenine and thymine, cytosine and guanine provide limited insights into humanity's underlying genetics.

Related Articles


In a paper published in the July 1, 2012 issue of the journal Nature, researchers at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine open the book further, mapping for the first time a significant portion of the functional sequences of the mouse genome, the most widely used mammalian model organism in biomedical research.

"We've known the precise alphabet of the human genome for more than a decade, but not necessarily how those letters make meaningful words, paragraphs or life," said Bing Ren, PhD, head of the Laboratory of Gene Regulation at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research at UC San Diego. "We know, for example, that only one to two percent of the functional genome codes for proteins, but that there are highly conserved regions in the genome outside of protein-coding that affect genes and disease development. It's clear these regions do something or they would have changed or disappeared."

Chief among those regions are cis-regulatory elements, key stretches of DNA that appear to regulate the transcription of genes. Misregulation of genes can result in diseases like cancer. Using high-throughput sequencing technologies, Ren and colleagues mapped nearly 300,000 mouse cis-regulatory elements in 19 different types of tissue and cell. The unprecedented work provided a functional annotation of nearly 11 percent of the mouse genome, and more than 70 percent of the conserved, non-coding sequences shared with other mammalian species, including humans.

As expected, the researchers identified different sequences that promote or start gene activity, enhance its activity and define where it occurs in the body during development. More surprising, said Ren, was that the structural organization of the cis-regulatory elements are grouped into discrete clusters corresponding to spatial domains. "It's a case of form following function," he said. "It makes sense."

While the research is fundamentally revealing, Ren noted it is also just a beginning, a partial picture of the functional genome. Additional studies will be needed in other types of cells and at different stages of development.

"We've mapped and understand 11 percent of the genome," said Ren. "There's still a long way to march."

Co-authors are Yin Shen, Feng Yue, David F. McCleary, Zhen Ye, Lee Edsall, Samantha Kuan, Ulrich Wagner and Leonard Lee, all at the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research; Jesse Dixon, Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Medical Scientist Training Program and Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program, UC San Diego; and Victor Lobanenkov, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

Funding for this research came, in part, from the National Human Genome Research Institute (grant R01HG003991).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Yin Shen, Feng Yue, David F. McCleary, Zhen Ye, Lee Edsall, Samantha Kuan, Ulrich Wagner, Jesse Dixon, Leonard Lee, Victor V. Lobanenkov, Bing Ren. A map of the cis-regulatory sequences in the mouse genome. Nature, 2012; DOI: 10.1038/nature11243

Cite This Page:

University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. "Beyond base-pairs: Mapping the functional genome." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 July 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120701191509.htm>.
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. (2012, July 1). Beyond base-pairs: Mapping the functional genome. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120701191509.htm
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. "Beyond base-pairs: Mapping the functional genome." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120701191509.htm (accessed October 30, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 29, 2014) A Swedish amputee who became the first person to ever receive a brain controlled prosthetic arm is able to manipulate and handle delicate objects with an unprecedented level of dexterity. The device is connected directly to his bone, nerves and muscles, giving him the ability to control it with his thoughts. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Google To Use Nanoparticles, Wearables To Detect Disease

Google To Use Nanoparticles, Wearables To Detect Disease

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) Google X wants to improve modern medicine with nanoparticles and a wearable device. It's all an attempt to tackle disease detection and prevention. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Can Drinking Milk Lead To Early Death?

Can Drinking Milk Lead To Early Death?

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) Researchers in Sweden released a study showing heavy milk drinkers face an increased mortality risk from a variety of causes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: The US Will Not 'run and Hide' From Ebola

Obama: The US Will Not 'run and Hide' From Ebola

AP (Oct. 29, 2014) Surrounded by health care workers in the White House East Room, President Barack Obama said the U.S. will likely see additional Ebola cases in the weeks ahead. But he said the nation can't seal itself off in the fight against the disease. (Oct. 29) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

    Technology News



    Save/Print:
    Share:

    Free Subscriptions


    Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

    Get Social & Mobile


    Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

    Have Feedback?


    Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
    Mobile: iPhone Android Web
    Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
    Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
    Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins